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  1. The UNIfied Partitioning-Aerosol phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model was established on the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) to process Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation by capturing multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons (HCs) in regional scales. SOA growth was simulated using a wide range of anthropogenic HCs including ten aromatics and linear alkanes with different carbon-lengths. The atmospheric processes of biogenic HCs (isoprene, terpenes, and sesquiterpene) were simulated for the major oxidation paths (ozone, OH radicals, and nitrate radicals) to predict day and night SOA formation. The UNIPAR model streamlined the multiphase partitioning of the lumping species originating from semi-explicitly predicted gas products and their heterogeneous chemistry to form non-volatile oligomeric species in both organic aerosol and inorganic aqueous phase. The CAMx-UNIPAR model predicted SOA formation at four ground urban sites (San Jose, Sacramento, Fresno, and Bakersfield) in California, United States during wintertime 2018. Overall, the simulated mass concentrations of the total organic matter, consisting of primary OA (POA) and SOA, showed a good agreement with the observations. The simulated SOA mass in the urban areas of California was predominated by alkane and terpene. During the daytime, low-volatile products originating from the autoxidation of long-chain alkanes considerably contributed to the SOA mass. In contrast, a significant amount of nighttime SOA was produced by the reaction of terpene with ozone or nitrate radicals. The spatial distributions of anthropogenic SOA associated with aromatic and alkane HCs were noticeably affected by the southward wind direction owing to the relatively long lifetime of their atmospheric oxidation, whereas those of biogenic SOA were nearly insensitive to wind direction. During wintertime 2018, the impact of inorganic aerosol hygroscopicity on the total SOA budget was not evident because of the small contribution of aromatic and isoprene products that are hydrophilic and reactive in the inorganic aqueous phase. However, an increased isoprene SOA mass was predicted during the wet periods, although its contribution to the total SOA was little. 
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  2. ABSTRACT Despite the rich observational results on interstellar magnetic fields in star-forming regions, it is still unclear how dynamically significant the magnetic fields are at varying physical scales, because direct measurement of the field strength is observationally difficult. The Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi (DCF) method has been the most commonly used method to estimate the magnetic field strength from polarization data. It is based on the assumption that gas turbulent motion is the driving source of field distortion via linear Alfvén waves. In this work, using MHD simulations of star-forming clouds, we test the validity of the assumption underlying the DCF method by examining its accuracy in the real 3D space. Our results suggest that the DCF relation between turbulent kinetic energy and magnetic energy fluctuation should be treated as a statistical result instead of a local property. We then develop and investigate several modifications to the original DCF method using synthetic observations, and propose new recipes to improve the accuracy of DCF-derived magnetic field strength. We further note that the biggest uncertainty in the DCF analysis may come from the linewidth measurement instead of the polarization observation, especially since the line-of-sight gas velocity can be used to estimate the gas volume density, another critical parameter in the DCF method. 
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