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  1. Microstructure refinement and optimized alloying can improve metallic alloy performance: stable nanocrystalline (NC) alloys with immiscible second phases, e.g., Cu-Ta, are stronger than unstable NC alloys and their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts, but higher melting point matrices are needed. Hypoeutectic, CG Ni-Y-Zr alloys were produced via arc-melting to explore their potential as high-performance materials. Microstructures were studied to determine phases present, local composition and length scales, while heat treatments allowed investigating microstructural stability. Alloys had a stable, hierarchical microstructure with ~250 nm ultrafine eutectic, ~10 µm dendritic arm spacing and ~1 mm grain size. Hardness and uniaxial compression tests revealed that mechanical properties of Ni-0.5Y-1.8Zr (in wt%) were comparable to Inconel 617 despite the small alloying additions, due to its hierarchical microstructure. Uniaxial compression at 600 °C showed that ternary alloys outperformed Ni-Zr and Ni-Y binary alloys in flow stress and hardening rates, which indicates that the Ni17Y2 phase was an effective reinforcement for the eutectic, which supplemented the matrix hardening due to increased solubility of Zr. Results suggest that ternary Ni-Y-Zr alloys hold significant promise for high temperature applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. We probe the microstructural yielding dynamics of a concentrated colloidal system by performing creep/recovery tests with simultaneous collection of coherent scattering data via X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). This combination of rheology and scattering allows for time-resolved observations of the microstructural dynamics as yielding occurs, which can be linked back to the applied rheological deformation to form structure–property relations. Under sufficiently small applied creep stresses, examination of the correlation in the flow direction reveals that the scattering response recorrelates with its predeformed state, indicating nearly complete microstructural recovery, and the dynamics of the system under these conditions slows considerably. Conversely, larger creep stresses increase the speed of the dynamics under both applied creep and recovery. The data show a strong connection between the microstructural dynamics and the acquisition of unrecoverable strain. By comparing this relationship to that predicted from homogeneous, affine shearing, we find that the yielding transition in concentrated colloidal systems is highly heterogeneous on the microstructural level. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Climate-forced, offline ice-sheet model simulations have been used extensively in assessing how much ice-sheets can contribute to future global sea-level rise. Typically, these model projections do not account for the two-way interactions between ice-sheets and climate. To quantify the impact of ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, here we conduct greenhouse warming simulations with a coupled global climate-ice-sheet model of intermediate complexity. Following the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) 1-1.9, 2-4.5, 5-8.5 emission scenarios, the model simulations ice-sheet contributions to global sea-level rise by 2150 of 0.2 ± 0.01, 0.5 ± 0.01 and 1.4 ± 0.1 m, respectively. Antarctic ocean-ice-sheet-ice-shelf interactions enhance future subsurface basal melting, while freshwater-induced atmospheric cooling reduces surface melting and iceberg calving. The combined effect is likely to decelerate global sea-level rise contributions from Antarctica relative to the uncoupled climate-forced ice-sheet model configuration. Our results demonstrate that estimates of future sea-level rise fundamentally depend on the complex interactions between ice-sheets, icebergs, ocean and the atmosphere.

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  4. Kemp, Melissa L. (Ed.)
    While aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, has for a long time been considered a hallmark of tumor metabolism, recent studies have revealed a far more complex picture. Tumor cells exhibit widespread metabolic heterogeneity, not only in their presentation of the Warburg effect but also in the nutrients and the metabolic pathways they are dependent on. Moreover, tumor cells can switch between different metabolic phenotypes in response to environmental cues and therapeutic interventions. A framework to analyze the observed metabolic heterogeneity and plasticity is, however, lacking. Using a mechanistic model that includes the key metabolic pathways active in tumor cells, we show that the inhibition of phosphofructokinase by excess ATP in the cytoplasm can drive a preference for aerobic glycolysis in fast-proliferating tumor cells. The differing rates of ATP utilization by tumor cells can therefore drive heterogeneity with respect to the presentation of the Warburg effect. Building upon this idea, we couple the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells to their migratory phenotype, and show that our model predictions are in agreement with previous experiments. Next, we report that the reliance of proliferating cells on different anaplerotic pathways depends on the relative availability of glucose and glutamine, and can further drive metabolic heterogeneity. Finally, using treatment of melanoma cells with a BRAF inhibitor as an example, we show that our model can be used to predict the metabolic and gene expression changes in cancer cells in response to drug treatment. By making predictions that are far more generalizable and interpretable as compared to previous tumor metabolism modeling approaches, our framework identifies key principles that govern tumor cell metabolism, and the reported heterogeneity and plasticity. These principles could be key to targeting the metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer. 
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  5. Abstract

    Direct transfer of pre-patterned device-grade nano-to-microscale materials highly benefits many existing and potential, high performance, heterogeneously integrated functional systems over conventional lithography-based microfabrication. We present, in combined theory and experiment, a self-delamination-driven pattern transfer of a single crystalline silicon thin membrane via well-controlled interfacial design in liquid media. This pattern transfer allows the usage of an intermediate or mediator substrate where both front and back sides of a thin membrane are capable of being integrated with standard lithographical processing, thereby achieving deterministic assembly of the thin membrane into a multi-functional system. Implementations of these capabilities are demonstrated in broad variety of applications ranging from electronics to microelectromechanical systems, wetting and filtration, and metamaterials.

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  6. Electrification of the transportation sector relies on radical re-imagining of energy storage technologies to provide affordable, high energy density, durable and safe systems. Next generation energy storage systems will need to leverage high energy density anodes and high voltage cathodes to achieve the required performance metrics (longer vehicle range, long life, production costs, safety). Solid-state batteries (SSBs) are promising materials technology for achieving these metrics by enabling these electrode systems due to the underlying material properties of the solid electrolyte ( viz. mechanical strength, electrochemical stability, ionic conductivity). Electro-chemo-mechanical degradation in SSBs detrimentally impact the Coulombic efficiencies, capacity retention, durability and safety in SSBs restricting their practical implementation. Solid|solid interfaces in SSBs are hot-spots of dynamics that contribute to the degradation of SSBs. Characterizing and understanding the processes at the solid|solid interfaces in SSBs is crucial towards designing of resilient, durable, high energy density SSBs. This work provides a comprehensive and critical summary of the SSB characterization with a focus on in situ and operando studies. Additionally, perspectives on experimental design, emerging characterization techniques and data analysis methods are provided. This work provides a thorough analysis of current status of SSB characterization as well as highlights important avenues for future work. 
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