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  1. OBJECTIVES: Prediction and determination of drug efficacy for radiographic progression is limited by the heterogeneity inherent in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). We investigated whether unbiased clustering analysis of phenotypic data can lead to coherent subgroups of axSpA patients with a distinct risk of radiographic progression. METHODS: A group of 412 patients with axSpA was clustered in an unbiased way using a agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, based on their phenotype mapping. We used a generalised linear model, naïve Bayes, Decision Trees, K-Nearest-Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines to construct a consensus classification method. Radiographic progression over 2 years was assessed using the modifiedmore »Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). RESULTS: axSpA patients were classified into three distinct subgroups with distinct clinical characteristics. Sex, smoking, HLA-B27, baseline mSASSS, uveitis, and peripheral arthritis were the key features that were found to stratifying the phenogroups. The three phenogroups showed distinct differences in radiographic progression rate (p<0.05) and the proportion of progressors (p<0.001). Phenogroup 2, consisting of male smokers, had the worst radiographic progression, while phenogroup 3, exclusively suffering from uveitis, showed the least radiographic progression. The axSpA phenogroup classification, including its ability to stratify risk, was successfully replicated in an independent validation group. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotype mapping results in a clinically relevant classification of axSpA that is applicable for risk stratification. Novel coupling between phenotypic features and radiographic progression can provide a glimpse into the mechanisms underlying divergent and shared features of axSpA.« less
  2. Abstract The anomalous diffusion of resonant protons in parallel and perpendicular velocity space by kinetic Alfvén waves is discussed. The velocity diffusion coefficient is calculated by employing an autocorrelation function for proton trajectories. It is found that for protons resonant with the waves, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient decays away for a sufficiently long time, but parallel diffusion monotonically increases in time until it saturates at a certain level. This result indicates that a portion of resonant protons can undergo anomalous diffusion along the background magnetic field even if the intensity of the kinetic Alfvén wave is sufficiently low. The presentmore »findings imply that under suitable conditions, astrophysical charged-particle acceleration can take place in the parallel direction.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We present a background model for dark matter searches using an array of NaI(Tl) crystals in the COSINE-100 experiment that is located in the Yangyang underground laboratory. The model includes background contributions from both internal and external sources, including cosmogenic radionuclides and surface $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination. To build the model in the low energy region, with a threshold of 1 keV, we used a depth profile of $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination in the surface of the NaI(Tl) crystals determined in a comparison between measured and simulated spectra. We also considered the effect of the energy scale errors propagated frommore »the statistical uncertainties and the nonlinear detector response at low energies. The 1.7 years COSINE-100 data taken between October 21, 2016 and July 18, 2018 were used for this analysis. Our Monte Carlo simulation provides a non-Gaussian peak around 50 keV originating from beta decays of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb in a good agreement with the measured background. This model estimates that the activities of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb and $$^{3}$$ 3 H are dominating the background rate that amounts to an average level of $$2.85\pm 0.15$$ 2.85 ± 0.15  counts/day/keV/kg in the energy region of (1–6) keV, using COSINE-100 data with a total exposure of 97.7 kg $$\cdot $$ · years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  5. Abstract

    We report the identification of metastable isomeric states of$$^{228}$$228Ac at 6.28 keV, 6.67 keV and 20.19 keV, with lifetimes of an order of 100 ns. These states are produced by the$$\beta $$β-decay of$$^{228}$$228Ra, a component of the$$^{232}$$232Th decay chain, with$$\beta $$βQ-values of 39.52 keV, 39.13 keV and 25.61 keV, respectively. Due to the low Q-value of$$^{228}$$228Ra as well as the relative abundance of$$^{232}$$232Th and their progeny in low background experiments, these observations potentially impact the low-energy background modeling of dark matter search experiments.