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  1. Abstract

    The cross-correlation between the 21 cm field and the galaxy distribution is a potential probe of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The 21 cm signal traces neutral gas in the intergalactic medium and, on large spatial scales, this should be anticorrelated with the high-redshift galaxy distribution, which partly sources and tracks the ionized gas. In the near future, interferometers such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) are projected to provide extremely sensitive measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum. At the same time, the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (Roman) will produce the most extensive catalog to date of bright galaxies from the EoR. Using seminumeric simulations of reionization, we explore the prospects for measuring the cross-power spectrum between the 21 cm and galaxy fields during the EoR. We forecast a 12σdetection between HERA and Roman, assuming an overlapping survey area of 500 deg2, redshift uncertainties ofσz= 0.01 (as expected for the high-latitude spectroscopic survey of Lyα-emitting galaxies), and an effective Lyαemitter duty cycle offLAE= 0.1. Thus the HERA–Roman cross-power spectrum may be used to help verify 21 cm detections from HERA. We find that the shot-noise in the galaxy distribution is a limiting factor for detection, and so supplemental observations using Roman should prioritize deeper observations, rather than covering a wider field of view. We have made a public GitHub repository containing key parts of the calculation, which accompanies this paper:

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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Future generations of radio interferometers targeting the 21 cm signal at cosmological distances with N ≫ 1000 antennas could face a significant computational challenge in building correlators with the traditional architecture, whose computational resource requirement scales as $\mathcal {O}(N^2)$ with array size. The fundamental output of such correlators is the cross-correlation products of all antenna pairs in the array. The FFT-correlator architecture reduces the computational resources scaling to $\mathcal {O}(N\log {N})$ by computing cross-correlation products through a spatial Fourier transform. However, the output of the FFT-correlator is meaningful only when the input antenna voltages are gain- and phase-calibrated. Traditionally, interferometric calibration has used the $\mathcal {O}(N^2)$ cross-correlations produced by a standard correlator. This paper proposes two real-time calibration schemes that could work in parallel with an FFT-correlator as a self-contained $\mathcal {O}(N\log {N})$ correlator system that can be scaled to large-N redundant arrays. We compare the performance and scalability of these two calibration schemes and find that they result in antenna gains whose variance decreases as 1/log N with increase in the size of the array. 
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    To mitigate the effects of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the data analysis pipelines of 21 cm interferometric instruments, numerous inpaint techniques have been developed. In this paper, we examine the qualitative and quantitative errors introduced into the visibilities and power spectrum due to inpainting. We perform our analysis on simulated data as well as real data from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) Phase 1 upper limits. We also introduce a convolutional neural network that is capable of inpainting RFI corrupted data. We train our network on simulated data and show that our network is capable of inpainting real data without requiring to be retrained. We find that techniques that incorporate high wavenumbers in delay space in their modelling are best suited for inpainting over narrowband RFI. We show that with our fiducial parameters discrete prolate spheroidal sequences (dpss) and clean provide the best performance for intermittent RFI while Gaussian progress regression (gpr) and least squares spectral analysis (lssa) provide the best performance for larger RFI gaps. However, we caution that these qualitative conclusions are sensitive to the chosen hyperparameters of each inpainting technique. We show that all inpainting techniques reliably reproduce foreground dominated modes in the power spectrum. Since the inpainting techniques should not be capable of reproducing noise realizations, we find that the largest errors occur in the noise dominated delay modes. We show that as the noise level of the data comes down, clean and dpss are most capable of reproducing the fine frequency structure in the visibilities.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2024

    Radio interferometers aiming to measure the power spectrum of the redshifted 21 cm line during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) need to achieve an unprecedented dynamic range to separate the weak signal from overwhelming foreground emissions. Calibration inaccuracies can compromise the sensitivity of these measurements to the effect that a detection of the EoR is precluded. An alternative to standard analysis techniques makes use of the closure phase, which allows one to bypass antenna-based direction-independent calibration. Similarly to standard approaches, we use a delay spectrum technique to search for the EoR signal. Using 94 nights of data observed with Phase I of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), we place approximate constraints on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 7.7. We find at 95 per cent confidence that the 21 cm EoR brightness temperature is ≤(372)2 ‘pseudo’ mK2 at 1.14 ‘pseudo’ h Mpc−1, where the ‘pseudo’ emphasizes that these limits are to be interpreted as approximations to the actual distance scales and brightness temperatures. Using a fiducial EoR model, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting the EoR with the full array. Compared to standard methods, the closure phase processing is relatively simple, thereby providing an important independent check on results derived using visibility intensities, or related.

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    Combining the visibilities measured by an interferometer to form a cosmological power spectrum is a complicated process. In a delay-based analysis, the mapping between instrumental and cosmological space is not a one-to-one relation. Instead, neighbouring modes contribute to the power measured at one point, with their respective contributions encoded in the window functions. To better understand the power measured by an interferometer, we assess the impact of instrument characteristics and analysis choices on these window functions. Focusing on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as a case study, we find that long-baseline observations correspond to enhanced low-k tails of the window functions, which facilitate foreground leakage, whilst an informed choice of bandwidth and frequency taper can reduce said tails. With simple test cases and realistic simulations, we show that, apart from tracing mode mixing, the window functions help accurately reconstruct the power spectrum estimator of simulated visibilities. The window functions depend strongly on the beam chromaticity and less on its spatial structure – a Gaussian approximation, ignoring side lobes, is sufficient. Finally, we investigate the potential of asymmetric window functions, down-weighting the contribution of low-k power to avoid foreground leakage. The window functions presented here correspond to the latest HERA upper limits for the full Phase I data. They allow an accurate reconstruction of the power spectrum measured by the instrument and will be used in future analyses to confront theoretical models and data directly in cylindrical space.

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  7. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We introduce DAYENU, a linear, spectral filter for HI intensity mapping that achieves the desirable foreground mitigation and error minimization properties of inverse co-variance weighting with minimal modeling of the underlying data. Beyond 21 cm power-spectrum estimation, our filter is suitable for any analysis where high dynamic-range removal of spectrally smooth foregrounds in irregularly (or regularly) sampled data is required, something required by many other intensity mapping techniques. Our filtering matrix is diagonalized by Discrete Prolate Spheroidal Sequences which are an optimal basis to model band-limited foregrounds in 21 cm intensity mapping experiments in the sense that they maximally concentrate power within a finite region of Fourier space. We show that DAYENU enables the access of large-scale line-of-sight modes that are inaccessible to tapered DFT estimators. Since these modes have the largest SNRs, DAYENU significantly increases the sensitivity of 21 cm analyses over tapered Fourier transforms. Slight modifications allow us to use DAYENU as a linear replacement for iterative delay CLEANing (DAYENUREST). We refer readers to the Code section at the end of this paper for links to examples and code. 
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  8. null (Ed.)

    We present a Bayesian jackknife test for assessing the probability that a data set contains biased subsets, and, if so, which of the subsets are likely to be biased. The test can be used to assess the presence and likely source of statistical tension between different measurements of the same quantities in an automated manner. Under certain broadly applicable assumptions, the test is analytically tractable. We also provide an open-source code, chiborg, that performs both analytic and numerical computations of the test on general Gaussian-distributed data. After exploring the information theoretical aspects of the test and its performance with an array of simulations, we apply it to data from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) to assess whether different sub-seasons of observing can justifiably be combined to produce a deeper 21 cm power spectrum upper limit. We find that, with a handful of exceptions, the HERA data in question are statistically consistent and this decision is justified. We conclude by pointing out the wide applicability of this test, including to CMB experiments and the H0 tension.

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