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  1. Abstract This study evaluated the effects of water stress on rice yield over Punjab and Haryana across North India by integrating Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) models. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite datasets were used to define land use/land cover in WRF. The accuracy of simulated rainfall and temperature over Punjab and Haryana was evaluated against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and automated weather station data of Indian Space Research Organization, respectively. Data from WRF was used as weather input to DSSAT to simulate rice yield in Punjab and Haryana for 2009 and 2014. After simulated yield has been evaluated against district-level observed yield, the water balance components within the DSSAT model were used to analyze the impact of water stress on rice yield. The correlation (R 2 ) between the crop water stress factor and the rice yield anomaly at the vegetative and reproductive stage was 0.64 and 0.52 for Haryana and 0.73 and 0.68 for Punjab, respectively. Severe water stress during the flowering to maturity stage inflicted devastating effects on yield. The study concludes that the regional climate simulations can be potentially used for early water stress prediction and its impact on rice yield. 
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  2. Karyotypic diversity is critical to catalyzing change in the evolution of all plants. By resulting in meiotic incompatibility among sets of homologous chromosomes, polyploidy and aneuploidy may facilitate reproductive isolation and the potential for speciation. Across plants, karyotypic variants in the form of allopolyploids receive greater taxonomic attention relative to autopolyploids and aneuploids. In particular, the prevalence and significance of autopolyploidy and aneuploidy in bryophytes is little understood. Using Fritsch’s 1991 compendium of bryophyte karyotypes with augmentation from karyological studies published since, we have quantified the prevalence of karyotypic variants among ~1500 extant morphological species of mosses. We assessed the phylogenetic distribution of karyological data, the frequency of autopolyploidy and aneuploidy, and the methodological correlates with karyotypic diversity. At least two ploidy levels were recorded from 17% of species potentially increasing current taxonomic diversity of mosses to over 15,000 species. We find that for a given species, the number of unique karyotypes recorded is correlated with the number of populations sampled. The evidence suggests that cytological diversity likely underlies yet undescribed species diversity in mosses, and that intensive karyological sampling is a needed tool for its discovery. 
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  3. Abstract

    Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (RIXS) experiments on the iron-based ladder BaFe2Se3unveiled an unexpected two-peak structure associated with local orbital (dd) excitations in a block-type antiferromagnetic phase. A mixed character between correlated band-like and localized excitations was also reported. Here, we use the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the momentum-resolved charge- and orbital-dynamical response functions of a multi-orbital Hubbard chain. Remarkably, our results qualitatively resemble the BaFe2Se3RIXS data, while also capturing the presence of long-range magnetic order as found in neutron scattering, only when the model is in an exotic orbital-selective Mott phase (OSMP). In the calculations, the experimentally observed zero-momentum transfer RIXS peaks correspond to excitations between itinerant and Mott insulating orbitals. We provide experimentally testable predictions for the momentum-resolved charge and orbital dynamical structures, which can provide further insight into the OSMP regime of BaFe2Se3.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024