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  1. Abstract

    The total energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere is governed by the reconnection rate at the magnetosphere edges as the Z‐component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMFBz) turns southward. The geomagnetic storm on 21–22 January 2005 is considered to be anomalous as the SYM‐H index that signifies the strength of ring current, decreases and had a sustained trough value of −101 nT lasting more than 6 hr under northward IMFBzconditions. In this work, the standard WINDMI model is utilized to estimate the growth and decay of magnetospheric currents by using several solar wind‐magnetosphere coupling functions. However, it is found that the WINDMI model driven by any of these coupling functions is not fully able to explain the decrease of SYM‐H under northward IMFBz. A dense plasma sheet along with signatures of a highly stretched magnetosphere was observed during this storm. The SYM‐H variations during the entire duration of the storm were only reproduced after modifying the WINDMI model to account for the effects of the dense plasma sheet. The limitations of directly driven models relying purely on the solar wind parameters and not accounting for the state of the magnetosphere are highlighted by this work.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The effects of strong magnetic fields on the deconfinement phase transition expected to take place in the interior of massive neutron stars are studied in detail for the first time. For hadronic matter, the very general density-dependent relativistic mean field model is employed, while the simple, but effective vector-enhanced bag model is used to study quark matter. Magnetic-field effects are incorporated into the matter equation of state and in the general-relativity solutions, which also satisfy Maxwell’s equations. We find that for large values of magnetic dipole moment, the maximum mass, canonical mass radius, and dimensionless tidal deformability obtained for stars using spherically symmetric Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff (TOV) equations and axisymmetric solutions attained through the LORENE library differ considerably. The deviations depend on the stiffness of the equation of state and on the star mass being analyzed. This points to the fact that, unlike what was assumed previously in the literature, magnetic field thresholds for the approximation of isotropic stars and the acceptable use of TOV equations depend on the matter composition and interactions.

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