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  1. Butt, Miriam ; Findlay, Jamie Y. ; Toivonen, Ida (Ed.)
    In this paper we examine the argumenthood properties of Controlled Complement Clauses and Non-Complement Subordinate Clauses in O’dam. We show that in O’dam only controlled COMPs are arguments, while other putative complement clauses are adjunct relative clauses that elaborate on a pronominal OBJ incorporated in the matrix verb. We use the LRFG framework to capture both the argumenthood properties of the two types of clauses in O’dam as well as the patterns of object marking on the matrix verb by taking advantage of mismatches between c-structure (phrase structure and f-descriptions) and v-structure (the vocabulary items realizing this structure).
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 27, 2023
  2. Oblique convergence along strike-slip faults can lead to both distributed and localized deformation. How focused transpressive deformation is both localized and maintained along sub-vertical wrench structures to create high topography and deep exhumation warrants further investigation. The high peak region of the Hayes Range, central Alaska, USA, is bound by two lithospheric scale vertical faults: the Denali fault to the south and Hines Creek fault to the north. The high topography area has peaks over 4000 m and locally has experienced more than 14 km of Neogene exhumation, yet the mountain range is located on the convex side of themore »Denali fault Mount Hayes restraining bend, where slip partitioning alone cannot account for this zone of extreme exhumation. Through the application of U-Pb zircon, 40Ar/39Ar (hornblende, muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar), apatite fission-track, and (U-Th)/He geo-thermochronology, we test whether these two parallel, reactivated suture zone structures are working in tandem to vertically extrude the Between the Hines Creek and Denali faults block on the convex side of the Mount Hayes restraining bend. We document that since at least 45 Ma, the Denali fault has been bent and localized in a narrow fault zone (<160 m) with a significant dip-slip component, the Mount Hayes restraining bend has been fixed to the north side of the Denali fault, and that the Between the Hines Creek and Denali faults block has been undergoing vertical extrusion as a relatively coherent block along the displacement “free faces” of two lithospheric scale suture zone faults. A bent Denali fault by ca. 45 Ma supports the long-standing Alaska orocline hypothesis that has Alaska bent by ca. 44 Ma. Southern Alaska is currently converging at ~4 mm/yr to the north against the Denali fault and driving vertical extrusion of the Between the Hines Creek and Denali faults block and deformation north of the Hines Creek fault. We apply insights ascertained from the Between the Hines Creek and Denali faults block to another region in southern Alaska, the Fairweather Range, where extreme topography and persistent exhumation is also located between two sub-parallel faults, and propose that this region has likely undergone vertical extrusion along the free faces of those faults.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 7, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The field of plant genome sequencing has grown rapidly in the past 20 years, leading to increases in the quantity and quality of publicly available genomic resources. The growing wealth of genomic data from an increasingly diverse set of taxa provides unprecedented potential to better understand the genome biology and evolution of land plants. Here we provide a contemporary view of land plant genomics, including analyses on assembly quality, taxonomic distribution of sequenced species and national participation. We show that assembly quality has increased dramatically in recent years, that substantial taxonomic gaps exist and that the field has been dominatedmore »by affluent nations in the Global North and China, despite a wide geographic distribution of study species. We identify numerous disconnects between the native range of focal species and the national affiliation of the researchers studying them, which we argue are rooted in colonialism—both past and present. Luckily, falling sequencing costs, widening availability of analytical tools and an increasingly connected scientific community provide key opportunities to improve existing assemblies, fill sampling gaps and empower a more global plant genomics community.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Particle segregation is common in natural and industrial processes involving flowing granular materials. Complex, and seemingly contradictory, segregation phenomena have been observed for different boundary conditions and forcing. Using discrete element method simulations, we show that segregation of a single particle intruder can be described in a unified manner across different flow configurations. A scaling relation for the net segregation force is obtained by measuring forces on an intruder particle in controlled-velocity flows where gravity and flow kinematics are varied independently. The scaling law consists of two additive terms: a buoyancy-like gravity-induced pressure gradient term and a shear rate gradientmore »term, both of which depend on the particle size ratio. The shear rate gradient term reflects a kinematics-driven mechanism whereby larger (smaller) intruders are pushed toward higher (lower) shear rate regions. The scaling is validated, without refitting, in wall-driven flows, inclined wall-driven flows, vertical silo flows, and free-surface flows down inclines. Comparing the segregation force with the intruder weight results in predictions of the segregation direction that match experimental and computational results for various flow configurations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  7. Flowing granular materials segregate due to differences in particle size (driven by percolation) and density (driven by buoyancy). Modelling the segregation of mixtures of large/heavy particles and small/light particles is challenging due to the opposing effects of the two segregation mechanisms. Using discrete element method (DEM) simulations of combined size and density segregation we show that the segregation velocity is well described by a model that depends linearly on the local shear rate and quadratically on the species concentration for free surface flows. Concentration profiles predicted by incorporating this segregation velocity model into a continuum advection–diffusion–segregation transport model match DEMmore »simulation results well for a wide range of particle size and density ratios. Most surprisingly, the DEM simulations and the segregation velocity model both show that the segregation direction for a range of size and density ratios depends on the local species concentration. This leads to a methodology to determine the combination of particle size ratio, density ratio and particle concentration for which a bidisperse mixture will not segregate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 10, 2022
  8. The atmospheric history of molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) from 1852 to 2003 was reconstructed from measurements of firn air collected at Megadunes, Antarctica. The reconstruction shows that H 2 levels in the southern hemisphere were roughly constant near 330 parts per billion (ppb; nmol H 2 mol −1 air) during the mid to late 1800s. Over the twentieth century, H 2 levels rose by about 70% to 550 ppb. The reconstruction shows good agreement with the H 2 atmospheric history based on firn air measurements from the South Pole. The broad trends in atmospheric H 2 over the twentiethmore »century can be explained by increased methane oxidation and anthropogenic emissions. The H 2 rise shows no evidence of deceleration during the last quarter of the twentieth century despite an expected reduction in automotive emissions following more stringent regulations. During the late twentieth century, atmospheric CO levels decreased due to a reduction in automotive emissions. It is surprising that atmospheric H 2 did not respond similarly as automotive exhaust is thought to be the dominant source of anthropogenic H 2. The monotonic late twentieth century rise in H 2 levels is consistent with late twentieth-century flask air measurements from high southern latitudes. An additional unknown source of H 2 is needed to explain twentieth-century trends in atmospheric H 2 and to resolve the discrepancy between bottom-up and top-down estimates of the anthropogenic source term. The firn air–based atmospheric history of H 2 provides a baseline from which to assess human impact on the H 2 cycle over the last 150 y and validate models that will be used to project future trends in atmospheric composition as H 2 becomes a more common energy source.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2022
  9. Abstract Using Bayesian analyses we study the solar electron density with the NANOGrav 11 yr pulsar timing array (PTA) data set. Our model of the solar wind is incorporated into a global fit starting from pulse times of arrival. We introduce new tools developed for this global fit, including analytic expressions for solar electron column densities and open source models for the solar wind that port into existing PTA software. We perform an ab initio recovery of various solar wind model parameters. We then demonstrate the richness of information about the solar electron density, n E , that can bemore »gleaned from PTA data, including higher order corrections to the simple 1/ r 2 model associated with a free-streaming wind (which are informative probes of coronal acceleration physics), quarterly binned measurements of n E and a continuous time-varying model for n E spanning approximately one solar cycle period. Finally, we discuss the importance of our model for chromatic noise mitigation in gravitational-wave analyses of pulsar timing data and the potential of developing synergies between sophisticated PTA solar electron density models and those developed by the solar physics community.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023