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  1. Abstract

    A growing body of literature argues that digital models do not just help organizational leaders to predict the future. Models can inadvertently produce the very future they purport to describe. In this view,performativityis a side-effect of digital modeling. But digital twins turn such thinking on its head. Digital twins are digital models that are designed to be performative—changes in the model are supposed to produce corresponding changes in the world the model represents. This is what makes digital twins useful. But for decision-makers to act in ways that align the world outside the model with the predictions contained within, they must first believe that the model is a faithful representation. In other words, for a digital twin to become performative, it must first be taken-for-granted as “real”. In this paper, we explore the technological and organizational characteristics that are likely to shape the level of taken-for-grantedness of a digital twin.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Experiments have demonstrated that ion phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, play an important role in helicon source operation. Damping of the slow branch of the bounded whistler wave at the edge of a helicon source (i.e. the Trivelpiece-Gould mode) has been correlated with the creation of energetic electrons, heating of ions at the plasma edge, and anisotropic ion heating. Here we present ion velocity distribution function measurements, electron density and temperature measurements, and magnetic fluctuation measurements on both sides of anm=|1|helical antenna in a helicon source as a function of the driving frequency, magnetic field strength, and magnetic field orientation relative to the antenna helicity. Significant electron and ion heating (up to two times larger) occurs on the side of the antenna consistent with the launch of them=+1mode. The electron and ion heating occurs within one electron skin depth of the plasma edge, where slow wave damping is expected. The source parameters for enhanced particle heating are also consistent with lower hybrid resonance effects, which can only occur for Trivelpiece-Gould wave excitation.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The Gram-negative betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus necator is a chemolithotroph that can convert carbon dioxide into biomass. Cupriavidus necator has been engineered to produce a variety of high-value chemicals in the past. However, there is still a lack of a well-characterized toolbox for gene expression and genome engineering. Development and optimization of biosynthetic pathways in metabolically engineered microorganisms necessitates control of gene expression via functional genetic elements such as promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs), and codon optimization. In this work, a set of inducible and constitutive promoters were validated and characterized in C. necator, and a library of RBSs was designed and tested to show a 50-fold range of expression for green fluorescent protein (gfp). The effect of codon optimization on gene expression in C. necator was studied by expressing gfp and mCherry genes with varied codon-adaptation indices and was validated by expressing codon-optimized variants of a C12-specific fatty acid thioesterase to produce dodecanoic acid. We discuss further hurdles that will need to be overcome for C. necator to be widely used for biosynthetic processes.

     
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  4. Abstract

    A simulation of a supercell storm produced for a prior study on tornado predictability is reanalyzed for the purpose of examining the fine-scale details of tornadogenesis. It is found that the formation of a tornado-like vortex in the simulation differs from how such vortices have been understood to form in previous numerical simulations. The main difference between the present simulation and past ones is the inclusion of a turbulent boundary layer in the storm’s environment in the present case, whereas prior simulations have used a laminar boundary layer. The turbulent environment contains significant near-surface vertical vorticity (ζ> 0.03 s−1atz= 7.5 m), organized in the form of longitudinal streaks aligned with the southerly ground-relative winds. Theζstreaks are associated with corrugations in the vertical plane in the predominantly horizontal, westward-pointing environmental vortex lines; the vortex-line corrugations are produced by the vertical drafts associated with coherent turbulent structures aligned with the aforementioned southerly ground-relative winds (longitudinal coherent structures in the surface layer such as these are well known to the boundary layer and turbulence communities). Theζstreaks serve as focal points for tornadogenesis, and may actually facilitate tornadogenesis, given how near-surfaceζin the environment can rapidly amplify when subjected to the strong, persistent convergence beneath a supercell updraft.

    Significance Statement

    In high-resolution computer simulations of supercell storms that include a more realistic, turbulent environment, the means by which tornado-like vortices form differs from the mechanism identified in prior simulations using a less realistic, laminar environment. One possibility is that prior simulations develop intense vortices for the wrong reasons. Another possibility could be that tornadoes form in a wide range of ways in the real atmosphere, even within supercell storms that appear to be similar, and increasingly realistic computer simulations are finally now capturing that diversity.

     
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  5. Sugarcane croplands account for ~70% of global sugar production and ~60% of global ethanol production. Monitoring and predicting gross primary production (GPP) and transpiration (T) in these fields is crucial to improve crop yield estimation and management. While moderate-spatial-resolution (MSR, hundreds of meters) satellite images have been employed in several models to estimate GPP and T, the potential of high-spatial-resolution (HSR, tens of meters) imagery has been considered in only a few publications, and it is underexplored in sugarcane fields. Our study evaluated the efficacy of MSR and HSR satellite images in predicting daily GPP and T for sugarcane plantations at two sites equipped with eddy flux towers: Louisiana, USA (subtropical climate) and Sao Paulo, Brazil (tropical climate). We employed the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) and Vegetation Transpiration Model (VTM) with C4 photosynthesis pathway, integrating vegetation index data derived from satellite images and on-ground weather data, to calculate daily GPP and T. The seasonal dynamics of vegetation indices from both MSR images (MODIS sensor, 500 m) and HSR images (Landsat, 30 m; Sentinel-2, 10 m) tracked well with the GPP seasonality from the EC flux towers. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the HSR images had a stronger correlation with the tower-based GPP. Our findings underscored the potential of HSR imagery for estimating GPP and T in smaller sugarcane plantations.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    A BiFeO3film is grown epitaxially on a PrScO3single crystal substrate which imparts ~ 1.45% of biaxial tensile strain to BiFeO3resulting from lattice misfit. The biaxial tensile strain effect on BiFeO3is investigated in terms of crystal structure, Poisson ratio, and ferroelectric domain structure. Lattice resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, precession electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction results clearly show that in-plane interplanar distance of BiFeO3is the same as that of PrScO3with no sign of misfit dislocations, indicating that the biaxial tensile strain caused by lattice mismatch between BiFeO3and PrScO3are stored as elastic energy within BiFeO3film. Nano-beam electron diffraction patterns compared with structure factor calculation found that the BiFeO3maintains rhombohedral symmetry, i.e., space group ofR3c. The pattern analysis also revealed two crystallographically distinguishable domains. Their relations with ferroelectric domain structures in terms of size and spontaneous polarization orientations within the domains are further understood using four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy technique.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  10. In ferromagnetic systems lacking inversion symmetry, an applied electric field can control the ferromagnetic order parameters through the spin-orbit torque. The prototypical example is a bilayer heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet and a heavy metal that acts as a spin current source. In addition to such bilayers, spin-orbit coupling can mediate spin-orbit torques in ferromagnets that lack bulk inversion symmetry. A recently discovered example is the two-dimensional monolayer ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2. In this paper, we use first-principles calculations to study the spin-orbit torque and ensuing magnetic dynamics in this material. By expanding the torque versus magnetization direction as a series of vector spherical harmonics, we find that higher order terms (up to ℓ=4) are significant and play important roles in the magnetic dynamics. They give rise to deterministic, magnetic field-free electrical switching of perpendicular magnetization. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024