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Creators/Authors contains: "Paytan, A."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying organisms, yet we lack understanding of their acclimation potential in the natural environment. Here we measured geochemical proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) inPorites astreoidescorals that have been growing for their entire life under low aragonite saturation (Ωsw: 0.77–1.85). This allowed us to assess the ability of these corals to manipulate the chemical conditions at the site of calcification (Ωcf), and hence their potential to acclimate to changing Ωsw. We show that lifelong exposure to low Ωswdid not enable the corals to acclimate and reach similar Ωcfas corals grown under ambient conditions. The lower Ωcfat the site of calcification can explain a large proportion of the decreasingP. astreoidescalcification rates at low Ωsw. The naturally elevated seawater dissolved inorganic carbon concentration at this study site shed light on how different carbonate chemistry parameters affect calcification conditions in corals.

  4. Abstract

    The contributions and composition of baseflow sources across an extended recession period were quantified for six subwatersheds of varying size in a structurally complex watershed in coastal California using endmember mixing analysis and related to catchment characteristics (e.g., topography, geology, land use, and soil characteristics). Both shallow subsurface and deep groundwater reservoirs were important contributors for streamflow during low flow periods, and the composition of baseflow sources across subwatersheds was directly related to geologic indices. A binary classification of underlying bedrock permeability (e.g., low vs. high) best explained the changes in shallow subsurface water and deeper groundwater inputs through the seasonal recession. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) were used to provide additional insight into endmember characteristics and their contributions to baseflow. Stream water DIC concentrations were broadly controlled by mixing of groundwater and shallow subsurface water endmembers with relatively constant DIC concentrations, while stream water DOC concentrations reflected both spatial and temporal changes in shallow subsurface water DOC. Results from this study show (1) the importance of considering baseflow as a dynamic mixture of water from multiple sources, (2) the effect of geology on source composition at the subwatershedmore »scale during low flow conditions, and (3) the impact of shifting baseflow sources on stream water dissolved carbon concentrations and the utility of using dissolved carbon concentrations to obtain additional insight into temporal variability in baseflow sources.

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  5. Abstract

    Degradation of peatlands via drainage is increasing globally and destabilizing peat carbon (C) stores. The effects of drainage on the timing and magnitude of lateral C losses from degraded peatlands remains understudied. We measured spatial and temporal variability in lateral C exports from three drained peat islands in the Sacramento‐San Joaquin Delta in California across the 2017 and 2018 water years using measurements of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and suspended particulate organic C (POC) concentration combined with discharge. These measurements were supplemented with stable isotope data (δ13C‐DIC, δ13C‐POC, δ15N‐PON, and δ2H‐H2O values) to provide insight into hydrological and biogeochemical controls on lateral C exports from drained peatlands. Drainage DOC and DIC concentrations were seasonally variable with the highest values in the winter rainy season, when discharge was also elevated. Seasonal differences in the mobilization of dissolved C appeared to result from changing water sources and water table levels. Peat island drainage C contributions to surrounding waterways were also greatest during the winter. Although temporal variability in C cycling processes and trends were generally similar across islands, baseline drainage DIC, DOC, and POC concentrations were spatially variable, likely a result of sub‐island‐scale differences in soil organicmore »matter content and hydrology. This spatial variability complicates system‐wide assessments of C budgets. Net lateral C exports were water year dependent and comparable to previously published vertical C emission rates for this system. This work highlights the importance of including lateral C exports from drained peatlands in local and regional C budgets.

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  6. Abstract

    Biological productivity in the ocean directly influences the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean interior. Through this carbon cycle feedback, changing ocean productivity has long been hypothesized as a key pathway for modulating past atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and hence global climate. Because phytoplankton preferentially assimilate the light isotopes of carbon and the major nutrients nitrate and silicic acid, stable isotopes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and silicon (Si) in seawater and marine sediments can inform on ocean carbon and nutrient cycling, and by extension the relationship with biological productivity and global climate. Here, we compile water column C, N, and Si stable isotopes from GEOTRACES‐era data in four key ocean regions to review geochemical proxies of oceanic carbon and nutrient cycling based on the C, N, and Si isotopic composition of marine sediments. External sources and sinks as well as internal cycling (including assimilation, particulate matter export, and regeneration) are discussed as likely drivers of observed C, N, and Si isotope distributions in the ocean. The potential for C, N, and Si isotope measurements in sedimentary archives to record aspects of past ocean C and nutrient cycling is evaluated, along with key uncertainties and limitations associatedmore »with each proxy. Constraints on ocean C and nutrient cycling during late Quaternary glacial‐interglacial cycles and over the Cenozoic are examined. This review highlights opportunities for future research using multielement stable isotope proxy applications and emphasizes the importance of such applications to reconstructing past changes in the oceans and climate system.

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  7. Abstract

    Phytoplankton productivity and export sequester climatically significant quantities of atmospheric carbon dioxide as particulate organic carbon through a suite of processes termed the biological pump. Constraining how the biological pump operated in the past is important for understanding past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and Earth's climate history. However, reconstructing the history of the biological pump requires proxies. Due to their intimate association with biological processes, several bioactive trace metals and their isotopes are potential proxies for past phytoplankton productivity, including iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, molybdenum, barium, nickel, chromium, and silver. Here, we review the oceanic distributions, driving processes, and depositional archives for these nine metals and their isotopes based on GEOTRACES‐era datasets. We offer an assessment of the overall maturity of each isotope system to serve as a proxy for diagnosing aspects of past ocean productivity and identify priorities for future research. This assessment reveals that cadmium, barium, nickel, and chromium isotopes offer the most promise as tracers of paleoproductivity, whereas iron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum do not. Too little is known about silver to make a confident determination. Intriguingly, the trace metals that are least sensitive to productivity may be used to track other aspects of ocean chemistry,more »such as nutrient sources, particle scavenging, organic complexation, and ocean redox state. These complementary sensitivities suggest new opportunities for combining perspectives from multiple proxies that will ultimately enable painting a more complete picture of marine paleoproductivity, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate history.

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