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  1. Abstract

    Compact symmetric objects (CSOs) are jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) with overall projected size <1 kpc. The classification was introduced to distinguish these objects from the majority of compact jetted AGN in centimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry observations, where the observed emission is relativistically boosted toward the observer. The original classification criteria for CSOs were (i) evidence of emission on both sides of the center of activity and (ii) overall size <1 kpc. However, some relativistically boosted objects with jet axes close to the line of sight appear symmetric and have been misclassified as CSOs, thereby undermining the CSO classification. This is because two essential CSO properties, pointed out in the original papers, have been neglected: (iii) low variability and (iv) low apparent speeds along the jets. As a first step toward creating a comprehensive catalog of “bona fide” CSOs, we identify 79 bona fide CSOs, including 15 objects claimed as confirmed CSOs here for the first time, that match the CSO selection criteria. This sample of bona fide CSOs can be used for astrophysical studies of CSOs without contamination by misclassified CSOs. We show that the fraction of CSOs in complete flux density limited AGN samples withS5GHz> 700 mJy is between (6.8 ± 1.6)% and (8.5 ± 1.8)%.

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  2. Context. Optical polarimeters are typically calibrated using measurements of stars with known and stable polarization parameters. However, there is a lack of such stars available across the sky. Many of the currently available standards are not suitable for medium and large telescopes due to their high brightness. Moreover, as we find, some of the polarimetric standards used are in fact variable or have polarization parameters that differ from their cataloged values. Aims. Our goal is to establish a sample of stable standards suitable for calibrating linear optical polarimeters with an accuracy down to 10 −3 in fractional polarization. Methods. For 4 yr, we have been running a monitoring campaign of a sample of standard candidates comprised of 107 stars distributed across the northern sky. We analyzed the variability of the linear polarization of these stars, taking into account the non-Gaussian nature of fractional polarization measurements. For a subsample of nine stars, we also performed multiband polarization measurements. Results. We created a new catalog of 65 stars (see Table 2) that are stable, have small uncertainties of measured polarimetric parameters, and can be used as calibrators of polarimeters at medium and large telescopes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024

    The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is our closest neighbouring spiral galaxy, making it an ideal target for studying the physics of the interstellar medium in a galaxy very similar to our own. Using new observations of M 31 at 4.76 GHz by the C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS), and all available radio data at 1° resolution, we produce the integrated spectrum and put new constraints on the synchrotron spectral index and anomalous microwave emission (AME) from M 31. We use aperture photometry and spectral modelling to fit for the integrated spectrum of M 31, and subtract a comprehensive model of nearby background radio sources. The AME in M 31 is detected at 3σ significance with a peak near 30 GHz and flux density 0.27 ± 0.09 Jy. The synchrotron spectral index of M 31 is flatter than our own Galaxy at α =−0.66 ± 0.03 with no strong evidence of spectral curvature. The emissivity of AME averaged over the total emission from M 31 is lower than typical AME sources in our Galaxy, implying that AME is not uniformly distributed throughout M 31 and instead is likely confined to sub-regions – this will need to be confirmed using future higher resolution observations around 20–30 GHz.

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  4. We present the first Bayesian method for tomographic decomposition of the plane-of-sky orientation of the magnetic field with the use of stellar polarimetry and distance. This standalone tomographic inversion method presents an important step forward in reconstructing the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in three dimensions within dusty regions. We develop a model in which the polarization signal from the magnetized and dusty ISM is described by thin layers at various distances, a working assumption which should be satisfied in small-angular circular apertures. Our modeling makes it possible to infer the mean polarization (amplitude and orientation) induced by individual dusty clouds and to account for the turbulence-induced scatter in a generic way. We present a likelihood function that explicitly accounts for uncertainties in polarization and parallax. We develop a framework for reconstructing the magnetized ISM through the maximization of the log-likelihood using a nested sampling method. We test our Bayesian inversion method on mock data, representative of the high Galactic latitude sky, taking into account realistic uncertainties from Gaia and as expected for the optical polarization survey P ASIPHAE according to the currently planned observing strategy. We demonstrate that our method is effective at recovering the cloud properties as soon as the polarization induced by a cloud to its background stars is higher than ~0.1% for the adopted survey exposure time and level of systematic uncertainty. The larger the induced polarization is, the better the method’s performance, and the lower the number of required stars. Our method makes it possible to recover not only the mean polarization properties but also to characterize the intrinsic scatter, thus creating new ways to characterize ISM turbulence and the magnetic field strength. Finally, we apply our method to an existing data set of starlight polarization with known line-of-sight decomposition, demonstrating agreement with previous results and an improved quantification of uncertainties in cloud properties. 
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    The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) has observed the Galaxy at 4.76 GHz with an angular resolution of 0${_{.}^{\circ}}$73 full-width half-maximum, and detected Galactic synchrotron emission with high signal-to-noise ratio over the entire northern sky (δ > −15○). We present the results of a spatial correlation analysis of Galactic foregrounds at mid-to-high (b > 10○) Galactic latitudes using a preliminary version of the C-BASS intensity map. We jointly fit for synchrotron, dust, and free–free components between 20 and 1000 GHz and look for differences in the Galactic synchrotron spectrum, and the emissivity of anomalous microwave emission (AME) when using either the C-BASS map or the 408-MHz all-sky map to trace synchrotron emission. We find marginal evidence for a steepening (<Δβ> = −0.06 ± 0.02) of the Galactic synchrotron spectrum at high frequencies resulting in a mean spectral index of <β> = −3.10 ± 0.02 over 4.76–22.8 GHz. Further, we find that the synchrotron emission can be well modelled by a single power law up to a few tens of GHz. Due to this, we find that the AME emissivity is not sensitive to changing the synchrotron tracer from the 408-MHz map to the 4.76-GHz map. We interpret this as strong evidence for the origin of AME being spinning dust emission.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    Astrophysical simulations require knowledge of a wide array of reaction rates. For a number of reasons, many of these reaction rates cannot be measured directly and instead are probed with indirect nuclear reactions. We review the current state of the art regarding the techniques used to extract reaction information that is relevant to describe stars, including their explosions and collisions. We focus on the theoretical developments over the last decade that have had an impact on the connection between the laboratory indirect measurement and the astrophysical desired reaction. This review includes three major probes that have been, and will continue to be, widely used in our community: transfer reactions, breakup reactions, and charge-exchange reactions. 
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    We report multiwavelength observations of the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 in 2016–2020. Optical, X-ray, and GeV flares were detected. The contemporaneous MAGIC observations do not show significant very high energy (VHE; ≳100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. The lack of enhancement in radio emission measured by The Owens Valley Radio Observatory indicates the multizone nature of the emission from this object. We constrain the VHE duty cycle of the source to be <16 2014-like flares per year (95 per cent confidence). For the first time for this source, a broad-band low-state spectral energy distribution is constructed with a deep exposure up to the VHE range. A flux upper limit on the low-state VHE gamma-ray emission of an order of magnitude below that of the 2014 flare is determined. The X-ray data are used to fit the column density of (8.10 ± 0.93stat) × 1021 cm−2 of the dust in the lensing galaxy. VLBI observations show a clear radio core and jet components in both lensed images, yet no significant movement of the components is seen. The radio measurements are used to model the source-lens-observer geometry and determine the magnifications and time delays for both components. The quiescent emission is modelled with the high-energy bump explained as a combination of synchrotron-self-Compton and external Compton emission from a region located outside of the broad-line region. The bulk of the low-energy emission is explained as originating from a tens-of-parsecs scale jet.

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