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  1. While a number of O-H and O-D vibrational lines have been observed for hydrogen and deuterium in β-Ga 2 O 3 , it has been commonly reported that there is no absorption with a component of the polarization E parallel to the [010], or b, axis. This experimental result has led to O-H defect structures that involve shifted configurations of a vacancy at the tetrahedrally coordinated Ga(1) site [V Ga(1) ] and have ruled out structures that involve a vacancy at the octahedrally coordinated Ga(2) site [V Ga(2) ], because these structures are predicted to show absorption for E//[010]. In this Letter, weak O-D lines at 2475 and 2493 cm −1 with a component of their polarization with E//[010] are reported for β-Ga 2 O 3 that had been annealed in a D 2 ambient. O-D defect structures involving an unshifted V Ga(2) are proposed for these centers. An estimate is made that the concentration of V Ga(2) in a Czochralski-grown sample is 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than that of V Ga(1) from the intensities of the IR absorption lines.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 6, 2024
  2. Halide vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) Ga 2 O 3 films were grown on c-plane sapphire and diamond substrates at temperatures up to 550 °C without the use of a barrier dielectric layer to protect the diamond surface. Corundum phase α-Ga 2 O 3 was grown on the sapphire substrates, whereas the growth on diamond resulted in regions of nanocrystalline β-Ga 2 O 3 (nc-β-Ga 2 O 3 ) when oxygen was present in the HVPE reactor only during film growth. X-ray diffraction confirmed the growth of α-Ga 2 O 3 on sapphire but failed to detect any β-Ga 2 O 3 reflections from the films grown on diamond. These films were further characterized via Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the β-Ga 2 O 3 phase of these films. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the nanocrystalline character of these films. From cathodoluminescence spectra, three emission bands, UVL′, UVL, and BL, were observed for both the α-Ga 2 O 3 /sapphire and nc-Ga 2 O 3 /diamond, and these bands were centered at approximately 3.7, 3.2, and 2.7 eV.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. As electronic systems become larger and more complex, detection of the most vulnerable regions (MVR) to radiation exposure becomes more difficult and time consuming. We present a heuristic approach where the mechanical and thermal aspects of devices are exploited to quickly identify MVRs. Our approach involves the topological mapping of two device conditions. The first condition identifies regions with the highest mechanical strain or density of defects and interfaces via thermal wave probing and phase analysis. The second condition identifies regions with high electrical field. It is hypothesized that the region with the highest thermal wave penetration resistance and electrical field will exhibit the highest sensitivity to incoming radiation for single events and potentially, total ionizing dose. Our approach implements a simplistic design that improves analysis time by ∼2–3 orders of magnitude over current radiation sensitivity mapping methods. The design is demonstrated on the well-studied operational amplifier LM124, which shows agreement with the literature in identifying sensitive transistors–QR1, Q9, and Q18–with relatively high phase percentile values (>70%) and ΔT percentiles (>50%), satisfying conditions for elevated radiation susceptibility. This is followed by experimental results on a static random access memory (HM-6504) and a Xilinx Artix-7 35 T system on a chip.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  4. Radiation damage in electronic devices is known to be influenced by physics, design, and materials system. Here, we report the effects of biasing state (such as ON and OFF) and pre-existing damage in GaN high electron mobility transistors exposed to γ radiation. Controlled and accelerated DC biasing was used to prestress the devices, which showed significant degradation in device characteristics compared to pristine devices under ON and OFF states after γ irradiation. The experiment is performed in situ for the ON-state to investigate transient effects during irradiation until the total dose reaches 10 Mrad. It shows that threshold voltage, maximum transconductance, and leakage current initially decrease with dosage but slowly converge to a steady value at higher doses. After 10 Mrad irradiation, the OFF-state device demonstrates larger RONand one order of magnitude increased leakage current compared to the ON-state irradiated device. The micro-Raman study also confirms that the ON-state operation shows more radiation hardness than OFF and prestressed devices. Prestressed devices generate the highest threshold voltage shift from −2.85 to −2.49 V and two orders of magnitude higher leakage current with decreased saturation current after irradiation. These findings indicate that high electric fields during stressing can generate defects by modifying strain distribution, andmore »higher defect density can not only create more charges during irradiation but also accelerate the diffusion process from the ionizing track to the nearest collector and consequently degrade device performances.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 18, 2023
  5. Films of α-Ga 2 O 3 grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) were irradiated with protons at energies of 330, 400, and 460 keV with fluences 6 × 10 15  cm −2 and with 7 MeV C 4+ ions with a fluence of 1.3 × 10 13  cm −2 and characterized by a suite of measurements, including Photoinduced Transient Current Spectroscopy (PICTS), Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC), Microcathodoluminescence (MCL), Capacitance–frequency (C–f), photocapacitance and Admittance Spectroscopy (AS), as well as by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS). Proton irradiation creates a conducting layer near the peak of the ion distribution and vacancy defects distribution and introduces deep traps at E c -0.25, 0.8, and 1.4 eV associated with Ga interstitials, gallium–oxygen divacancies V Ga –V O , and oxygen vacancies V O . Similar defects were observed in C implanted samples. The PAS results can also be interpreted by assuming that the observed changes are due to the introduction of V Ga and V Ga –V O .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  6. Electron beam-induced current in the temperature range from 304 to 404 K was employed to measure the minority carrier diffusion length in metal–organic chemical vapor deposition-grown p-Ga 2 O 3 thin films with two different concentrations of majority carriers. The diffusion length of electrons exhibited a decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the cathodoluminescence emission spectrum identified optical signatures of the acceptor levels associated with the V Ga − –V O ++ complex. The activation energies for the diffusion length decrease and quenching of cathodoluminescence emission with increasing temperature were ascribed to the thermal de-trapping of electrons from V Ga − –V O ++ defect complexes.