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  1. We demonstrate quasi-phase matched, triply-resonant sum frequency conversion in 10.6-µm-diameter integrated gallium phosphide ring resonators. A small-signal, waveguide-to-waveguide power conversion efficiency of 8 ± 1.1%/mW; is measured for conversion from telecom (1536 nm) and near infrared (1117 nm) to visible (647 nm) wavelengths with an absolute power conversion efficiency of 6.3 ± 0.6%; measured at saturation pump power. For the complementary difference frequency generation process, a single photon conversion efficiency of 7.2%/mW from visible to telecom is projected for resonators with optimized coupling. Efficient conversion from visible to telecom will facilitate long-distance transmission of spin-entangled photons from solid-state emitters such as the diamond NV center, allowing long-distance entanglement for quantum networks.

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  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    The compact size, scalability, and strongly confined fields in integrated photonic devices enable new functionalities in photonic networking and information processing, both classical and quantum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) is a promising material for active integrated photonics due to its high refractive index, wide bandgap, strong nonlinear properties, and large acousto‐optic figure of merit. This study demonstrates that silicon‐lattice‐matched boron‐doped GaP (BGaP), grown at the 12‐inch wafer scale, provides similar functionalities as GaP. BGaP optical resonators exhibit intrinsic quality factors exceeding 25,000 and 200,000 at visible and telecom wavelengths, respectively. It further demonstrates the electromechanical generation of low‐loss acoustic waves and an integrated acousto‐optic (AO) modulator. High‐resolution spatial and compositional mapping, combined with ab initio calculations, indicate two candidates for the excess optical loss in the visible band: the silicon‐GaP interface and boron dimers. These results demonstrate the promise of the BGaP material platform for the development of scalable AO technologies at telecom and provide potential pathways toward higher performance at shorter wavelengths.

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  4. Solid-state defect qubit systems with spin-photon interfaces show great promise for quantum information and metrology applications. Photon collection efficiency, however, presents a major challenge for defect qubits in high refractive index host materials. Inverse-design optimization of photonic devices enables unprecedented flexibility in tailoring critical parameters of a spin-photon interface including spectral response, photon polarization, and collection mode. Further, the design process can incorporate additional constraints, such as fabrication tolerance and material processing limitations. Here, we design and demonstrate a compact hybrid gallium phosphide on diamond inverse-design planar dielectric structure coupled to single near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by implantation and annealing. We observe up to a 14-fold broadband enhancement in photon extraction efficiency, in close agreement with simulations. We expect that such inverse-designed devices will enable realization of scalable arrays of single-photon emitters, rapid characterization of new quantum emitters, efficient sensing, and heralded entanglement schemes.

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