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  1. Application of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems to frequency division duplex (FDD) is challenging mainly due to the considerable overhead required for downlink training and feedback. Channel extrapolation, i.e., estimating the channel response at the downlink frequency band based on measurements in the disjoint uplink band, is a promising solution to overcome this bottleneck. This paper presents measurement campaigns obtained by using a wideband (350 MHz) channel sounder at 3.5 GHz composed of a calibrated 64 element antenna array, in both an anechoic chamber and outdoor environment. The Space Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE) algorithm was used to extract the parameters (amplitude, delay, and angular information) of the multipath components from the attained channel data within the “training” (uplink) band. The channel in the downlink band is then reconstructed based on these path parameters. The performance of the extrapolated channel is evaluated in terms of mean squared error (MSE) and reduction of beamforming gain (RBG) in comparison to the “ground truth”, i.e., the measured channel at the downlink frequency. We find strong sensitivity to calibration errors and model mismatch, and also find that performance depends on propagation conditions: LOS performs significantly better than NLOS.
  2. Experiments and numerical simulations are described that develop quantitative understanding of atomic motion near the surfaces of nanoscopic photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs). Ultracold atoms are delivered from a moving optical lattice into the PCW. Synchronous with the moving lattice, transmission spectra for a guided-mode probe field are recorded as functions of lattice transport time and frequency detuning of the probe beam. By way of measurements such as these, we have been able to validate quantitatively our numerical simulations, which are based upon detailed understanding of atomic trajectories that pass around and through nanoscopic regions of the PCW under the influence of optical and surface forces. The resolution for mapping atomic motion is roughly 50 nm in space and 100 ns in time. By introducing auxiliary guided-mode (GM) fields that provide spatially varying AC Stark shifts, we have, to some degree, begun to control atomic trajectories, such as to enhance the flux into the central vacuum gap of the PCW at predetermined times and with known AC Stark shifts. Applications of these capabilities include enabling high fractional filling of optical trap sites within PCWs, calibration of optical fields within PCWs, and utilization of the time-dependent, optically dense atomic medium for novelmore »nonlinear optical experiments.

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  3. Model equations used to either diagnose or prognose the concentration of heterogeneously nucleated ice crystals depend on combinations of cloud temperature, aerosol properties, and elapsed time of supersaturated-vapor or supercooled-liquid conditions. The validity of these equations has been questioned. Among many uncertain factors there is a concern that practical limitations on aerosol particle time of exposure to supercooled-liquid conditions, within ice nucleus counters, has biased the predictions of a diagnostic model equation. In response to this concern, this work analyzes airborne measurements of crystals made within the downwind glaciated portions of wave clouds. A streamline model is used to connect a measurement of aerosol concentration, made upwind of a cloud, to a downwind ice crystal (IC) concentration. Four parameters are derived for 80 streamlines: (1) minimum cloud temperature along the streamline, (2) aerosol particle concentration (diameter, D > 0.5 μm) measured within ascending air upwind of the cloud, (3) IC concentration measured in descending air downwind, and (4) the duration of water-saturated conditions along the streamline. The latter are between 38 and 507 s and the minimum temperatures are between −34 and −14 °C. Values of minimum temperature, D > 0.5 μm aerosol concentration, and IC concentration are fitted usingmore »the equation developed for ice nucleating particles (INPs) by by DeMott et al. (2010; D10). Overall, there is reasonable agreement among measured IC concentrations, INP concentrations derived using D10's fit equation, and IC concentrations derived by fitting the airborne measurements with the equation developed by D10.« less