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  1. This paper studies how RAID (redundant array of independent disks) could take full advantage of modern SSDs (solid-state drives) with built-in transparent compression. In current practice, RAID users are forced to choose a specific RAID level (e.g., RAID 10 or RAID 5) with a fixed storage cost vs. speed performance trade-off. The commercial market is witnessing the emergence of a new family of SSDs that can internally perform hardware-based lossless compression on each 4KB LBA (logical block address) block, transparent to host OS and user applications. Beyond straightforwardly reducing the RAID storage cost, such modern SSDs make it possible to relieve RAID users from being locked into a fixed storage cost vs. speed performance trade-off. In particular, RAID systems could opportunistically leverage higher-than-expected runtime user data compressibility to enable dynamic RAID level conversion to improve the speed performance without compromising the effective storage capacity. This paper presents techniques to enable and optimize the practical implementation of such elastic RAID systems. We implemented a Linux software-based elastic RAID prototype that supports dynamic conversion between RAID 5 and RAID 10. Compared with a baseline software-based RAID 5, under sufficient runtime data compressibility that enables the conversion from RAID 5 to RAID 10 over 60% of user data, the elastic RAID could improve the 4KB random write IOPS (I/O per second) by 42% and 4KB random read IOPS in degraded mode by 46%, while maintaining the same effective storage capacity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    Room‐temperature magnetic skyrmion materials exhibiting robust topological Hall effect (THE) are crucial for novel nano‐spintronic devices. However, such skyrmion‐hosting materials are rare in nature. In this study, a self‐intercalated transition metal dichalcogenide Cr1+xTe2with a layered crystal structure that hosts room‐temperature skyrmions and exhibits large THE is reported. By tuning the self‐intercalate concentration, a monotonic control of Curie temperature from 169 to 333 K and a magnetic anisotropy transition from out‐of‐plane to the in‐plane configuration are achieved. Based on the intercalation engineering, room‐temperature skyrmions are successfully created in Cr1.53Te2with a Curie temperature of 295 K and a relatively weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Remarkably, a skyrmion‐induced topological Hall resistivity as large as ≈106 nΩ cm is observed at 290 K. Moreover, a sign reversal of THE is also found at low temperatures, which can be ascribed to other topological spin textures having an opposite topological charge to that of the skyrmions. Therefore, chromium telluride can be a new paradigm of the skyrmion material family with promising prospects for future device applications.

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  4. Abstract

    Skyrmion helicity, which defines the spin swirling direction, is a fundamental parameter that may be utilized to encode data bits in future memory devices. Generally, in centrosymmetric ferromagnets, dipole skyrmions with helicity of −π/2 and π/2 are degenerate in energy, leading to equal populations of both helicities. On the other hand, in chiral materials where the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) prevails and the dipolar interaction is negligible, only a preferred helicity is selected by the type of DMI. However, whether there is a rigid boundary between these two regimes remains an open question. Herein, the observation of dipole skyrmions with unconventional helicity polarization in a van der Waals ferromagnet, Fe5−δGeTe2, is reported. Combining magnetometry, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, electrical transport measurements, and micromagnetic simulations, the short‐range superstructures in Fe5−δGeTe2resulting in a localized DMI contribution, which breaks the degeneracy of the opposite helicities and leads to the helicity polarization, is demonstrated. Therefore, the helicity feature in Fe5−δGeTe2is controlled by both the dipolar interaction and DMI that the former leads to Bloch‐type skyrmions with helicity of ±π/2 whereas the latter breaks the helicity degeneracy. This work provides new insights into the skyrmion topology in van der Waals materials.

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