skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Percival, Carl J."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
    Methacrolein oxide (MACR-oxide) is a four-carbon, resonance-stabilized Criegee intermediate produced from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity is not well understood. This study identifies the functionalized hydroperoxide species, 1-hydroperoxy-2-methylallyl formate (HPMAF), generated from the reaction of MACR-oxide with formic acid using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS, 298 K = 25 °C, 10 torr = 13.3 hPa). Electronic structure calculations indicate the reaction proceeds via an energetically favorable 1,4-addition mechanism. The formation of HPMAF is observed by the rapid appearance of a fragment ion at m/z 99, consistent with the proposed mechanism and characteristic loss of HO2 upon photoionization of functional hydroperoxides. The identification of HPMAF is confirmed by comparison of the appearance energy of the fragment ion with theoretical predictions of its photoionization threshold. The results are compared to analogous studies on the reaction of formic acid with methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide), the other four-carbon Criegee intermediate in isoprene ozonolysis. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into the Earth's atmosphere. Ozonolysis is an important atmospheric sink for isoprene, which generates reactive carbonyl oxide species (R 1 R 2 CO + O − ) known as Criegee intermediates. This study focuses on characterizing the catalyzed isomerization and adduct formation pathways for the reaction between formic acid and methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide), a four-carbon unsaturated Criegee intermediate generated from isoprene ozonolysis. syn -MVK-oxide undergoes intramolecular 1,4 H-atom transfer to form a substituted vinyl hydroperoxide intermediate, 2-hydroperoxybuta-1,3-diene (HPBD), which subsequently decomposes to hydroxyl and vinoxylic radical products. Here, we report direct observation of HPBD generated by formic acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide under thermal conditions (298 K, 10 torr) using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. The acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide proceeds by a double hydrogen-bonded interaction followed by a concerted H-atom transfer via submerged barriers to produce HPBD and regenerate formic acid. The analogous isomerization pathway catalyzed with deuterated formic acid (D 2 -formic acid) enables migration of a D atom to yield partially deuterated HPBD (DPBD), which is identified by its distinct mass ( m / z 87) and photoionization threshold. In addition, bimolecular reaction of MVK-oxide with D 2 -formic acid forms a functionalized hydroperoxide adduct, which is the dominant product channel, and is compared to a previous bimolecular reaction study with normal formic acid. Complementary high-level theoretical calculations are performed to further investigate the reaction pathways and kinetics. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract. We present an updated mechanism for tropospheric halogen (Cl + Br + I) chemistry in the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transportmodel and apply it to investigate halogen radical cycling and implications for tropospheric oxidants. Improved representation of HOBr heterogeneouschemistry and its pH dependence in our simulation leads to less efficient recycling and mobilization of bromine radicals and enables the model toinclude mechanistic sea salt aerosol debromination without generating excessive BrO. The resulting global mean tropospheric BrO mixingratio is 0.19 ppt (parts per trillion), lower than previous versions of GEOS-Chem. Model BrO shows variable consistency and biases in comparison tosurface and aircraft observations in marine air, which are often near or below the detection limit. The model underestimates the daytimemeasurements of Cl2 and BrCl from the ATom aircraft campaign over the Pacific and Atlantic, which if correct would imply a very largemissing primary source of chlorine radicals. Model IO is highest in the marine boundary layer and uniform in the free troposphere, with a globalmean tropospheric mixing ratio of 0.08 ppt, and shows consistency with surface and aircraft observations. The modeled global meantropospheric concentration of Cl atoms is 630 cm−3, contributing 0.8 % of the global oxidation of methane, 14 % of ethane,8 % of propane, and 7 % of higher alkanes. Halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %,NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %. Most of the ozone decrease is driven by iodine-catalyzed loss. The resulting GEOS-Chem ozonesimulation is unbiased in the Southern Hemisphere but too low in the Northern Hemisphere. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract. Bromine radicals influence global tropospheric chemistryby depleting ozone and by oxidizing elemental mercury and reduced sulfurspecies. Observations typically indicate a 50 % depletion of sea saltaerosol (SSA) bromide relative to seawater composition, implying that SSAdebromination could be the dominant global source of tropospheric bromine.However, it has been difficult to reconcile this large source with therelatively low bromine monoxide (BrO) mixing ratios observed in the marineboundary layer (MBL). Here we present a new mechanistic description of SSAdebromination in the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry model with adetailed representation of halogen (Cl, Br, and I) chemistry. We show thatobserved levels of SSA debromination can be reproduced in a mannerconsistent with observed BrO mixing ratios. Bromine radical sinks from theHOBr + S(IV) heterogeneous reactions and from ocean emission ofacetaldehyde are critical in moderating tropospheric BrO levels. Theresulting HBr is rapidly taken up by SSA and also deposited. Observations of SSA debromination at southern midlatitudes in summer suggest that modeluptake of HBr by SSA may be too fast. The model provides a successfulsimulation of free-tropospheric BrO in the tropics and midlatitudes in summer,where the bromine radical sink from the HOBr + S(IV) reactions iscompensated for by more efficient HOBr-driven recycling in clouds compared toprevious GEOS-Chem versions. Simulated BrO in the MBL is generally muchhigher in winter than in summer due to a combination of greater SSA emissionand slower conversion of bromine radicals to HBr. An outstanding issue inthe model is the overestimate of free-tropospheric BrO in extratropicalwinter–spring, possibly reflecting an overestimate of the HOBr∕HBr ratiounder these conditions where the dominant HOBr source is hydrolysis ofBrNO3.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract. Isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (iSOA) is a significantcontributor to organic carbon (OC) in some forested regions, such astropical rainforests and the Southeastern US. However, its contribution toorganic aerosol in urban areas that have high levels of anthropogenicpollutants is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the formation ofanthropogenically influenced iSOA during summer in Beijing, China. Localisoprene emissions and high levels of anthropogenic pollutants, inparticular NOx and particulate SO42-, led to the formation ofiSOA under both high- and low-NO oxidation conditions, with significantheterogeneous transformations of isoprene-derived oxidation products toparticulate organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-organosulfates (NOSs).Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution massspectrometry was combined with a rapid automated data processing techniqueto quantify 31 proposed iSOA tracers in offline PM2.5 filterextracts. The co-elution of the inorganic ions in the extracts caused matrixeffects that impacted two authentic standards differently. The averageconcentration of iSOA OSs and NOSs was 82.5 ng m−3, which was around 3 timeshigher than the observed concentrations of their oxygenated precursors(2-methyltetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid). OS formation was dependant onboth photochemistry and the sulfate available for reactive uptake, as shown by astrong correlation with the product of ozone (O3) and particulatesulfate (SO42-). A greater proportion of high-NO OS products wereobserved in Beijing compared with previous studies in less pollutedenvironments. The iSOA-derived OSs and NOSs represented 0.62 %of the oxidized organic aerosol measured by aerosol mass spectrometry on average, butthis increased to ∼3 % on certain days. These resultsindicate for the first time that iSOA formation in urban Beijing is stronglycontrolled by anthropogenic emissions and results in extensive conversion toOS products from heterogenous reactions. 
    more » « less
  7. Isoprene has the highest emission into Earth’s atmosphere of any nonmethane hydrocarbon. Atmospheric processing of alkenes, including isoprene, via ozonolysis leads to the formation of zwitterionic reactive intermediates, known as Criegee intermediates (CIs). Direct studies have revealed that reactions involving simple CIs can significantly impact the tropospheric oxidizing capacity, enhance particulate formation, and degrade local air quality. Methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) is a four-carbon, asymmetric, resonance-stabilized CI, produced with 21 to 23% yield from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity has not been directly studied. We present direct kinetic measurements of MVK-oxide reactions with key atmospheric species using absorption spectroscopy. Direct UV-Vis absorption spectra from two independent flow cell experiments overlap with the molecular beam UV-Vis-depletion spectra reported recently [M. F. Vansco, B. Marchetti, M. I. Lester,J. Chem. Phys.149, 44309 (2018)] but suggest different conformer distributions under jet-cooled and thermal conditions. Comparison of the experimental lifetime herein with theory indicates only thesyn-conformers are observed;anti-conformers are calculated to be removed much more rapidly via unimolecular decay. We observe experimentally and predict theoretically fast reaction ofsyn-MVK-oxide with SO2and formic acid, similar to smaller alkyl-substituted CIs, and by contrast, slow removal in the presence of water. We determine products through complementary multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry, observing SO3and identifying organic hydroperoxide formation from reaction with SO2and formic acid, respectively. The tropospheric implications of these reactions are evaluated using a global chemistry and transport model.

    more » « less