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  1. Fish-associated microorganisms are known to be affected by the environment and other external factors, such as microbial transfer between interacting partners. One of the most iconic mutualistic interactions on coral reefs is the cleaning interactions between cleaner fishes and their clients, during which direct physical contact occurs. Here, we characterized the skin bacteria of the Caribbean cleaner sharknose goby, Elacatinus evelynae, in four coral reefs of the US Virgin Islands using sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. We specifically tested the relationship between gobies’ level of interaction with clients and skin microbiota diversity and composition. Ourmore »results showed differences in microbial alpha- and beta-diversity in the skin of gobies from different reef habitats and high inter-individual variation in microbiota diversity and structure. Overall, the results showed that fish-to-fish direct contact and specifically, access to a diverse clientele, influences the bacterial diversity and structure of cleaner gobies’ skin. Because of their frequent contact with clients, and therefore, high potential for microbial exchange, cleaner fish may serve as models in future studies aiming to understand the role of social microbial transfer in reef fish communities.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Because of increased geometric freedom at a widening range of length scales and access to a growing material space, additive manufacturing has spurred renewed interest in topology optimization of parts with spatially varying material properties and structural hierarchy. Simultaneously, a surge of micro/nanoarchitected materials have been demonstrated. Nevertheless, multiscale design and micro/nanoscale additive manufacturing have yet to be sufficiently integrated to achieve free-form, multiscale, biomimetic structures. We unify design and manufacturing of spatially varying, hierarchical structures through a multimicrostructure topology optimization formulation with continuous multimicrostructure embedding. The approach leads to an optimized layout of multiple microstructural materials within an optimizedmore »macrostructure geometry, manufactured with continuously graded interfaces. To make the process modular and controllable and to avoid prohibitively expensive surface representations, we embed the microstructures directly into the 3D printer slices. The ideas provide a critical, interdisciplinary link at the convergence of material and structure in optimal design and manufacturing.« less
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  6. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. A bstract A search for long-lived particles decaying into muon pairs is performed using proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2017 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb − 1 . The data sets used in this search were collected with a dedicated dimuon trigger stream with low transverse momentum thresholds, recorded at high rate by retaining a reduced amount of information, in order to explore otherwise inaccessible phase space at low dimuon mass and nonzero displacement from the primary interaction vertex. No significant excessmore »of events beyond the standard model expectation is found. Upper limits on branching fractions at 95% confidence level are set on a wide range of mass and lifetime hypotheses in beyond the standard model frameworks with the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of long-lived dark photons, or with a long-lived scalar resonance arising from a decay of a b hadron. The limits are the most stringent to date for substantial regions of the parameter space. These results can be also used to constrain models of displaced dimuons that are not explicitly considered in this paper.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. A bstract The top quark pair production cross section is measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The data were collected in a special LHC low-energy and low-intensity run in 2017, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 302 pb − 1 . The measurement is performed using events with one electron and one muon of opposite charge, and at least two jets. The measured cross section is 60 . 7 ± 5 . 0 (stat) ± 2 . 8 (syst) ± 1 . 1 (lumi) pb. A combination with the result in the single leptonmore »+ jets channel, based on data collected in 2015 at the same center-of-mass energy and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 27.4 pb − 1 , is then performed. The resulting measured value is 63 . 0 ± 4 . 1 (stat) ± 3 . 0 (syst+lumi) pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction of $$ {66.8}_{-3.1}^{+2.9} $$ 66.8 − 3.1 + 2.9 pb.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023