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Creators/Authors contains: "Perez, Alfredo J."

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  1. In this work we present a process and a tool to apply formal methods in Internet of Things (IoT) applications using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). As there are no best practices to develop secured IoT systems, we have developed a plug-in tool that integrates a framework to validate UML software models and we present the design of a location-based IoT application as a use case for the validation tool.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 22, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 18, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Since its inception in 2013, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has become the standard for short-distance wireless communication in many consumer devices, as well as special-purpose devices. In this study, we analyze the security features available in Bluetooth LE standards and evaluate the features implemented in two BLE wearable devices (a Fitbit heart rate wristband and a Polar heart rate chest wearable) and a BLE keyboard to explore which security features in the BLE standards are implemented in the devices. In this study, we used the ComProbe Bluetooth Protocol Analyzer, along with the ComProbe software to capture the BLE traffic of these three devices. We found that even though the standards provide security mechanisms, because the Bluetooth Special Interest Group does not require that manufacturers fully comply with the standards, some manufacturers fail to implement proper security mechanisms. The circumvention of security in Bluetooth devices could leak private data that could be exploited by rogue actors/hackers, thus creating security, privacy, and, possibly, safety issues for consumers and the public. We propose the design of a Bluetooth Security Facts Label (BSFL) to be included on a Bluetooth/BLE enabled device’s commercial packaging and conclude that there should be better mechanisms for informing usersmore »about the security and privacy provisions of the devices they acquire and use and to educate the public on protection of their privacy when buying a connected device.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  5. Wearable sensing technologies are having a worldwide impact on the creation of novel business opportunities and application services that are benefiting the common citizen. By using these technologies, people have transformed the way they live, interact with each other and their surroundings, their daily routines, and how they monitor their health conditions. We review recent advances in the area of wearable sensing technologies, focusing on aspects such as sensor technologies, communication infrastructures, service infrastructures, security, and privacy. We also review the use of consumer wearables during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and we discuss open challenges that must be addressed to further improve the efficacy of wearable sensing systems in the future.
  6. The privacy of users and information are becoming increasingly important with the growth and pervasive use of mobile devices such as wearables, mobile phones, drones, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Today many of these mobile devices are equipped with cameras which enable users to take pictures and record videos anytime they need to do so. In many such cases, bystanders’ privacy is not a concern, and as a result, audio and video of bystanders are often captured without their consent. We present results from a user study in which 21 participants were asked to use a wearable system called FacePET developed to enhance bystanders’ facial privacy by providing a way for bystanders to protect their own privacy rather than relying on external systems for protection. While past works in the literature focused on privacy perceptions of bystanders when photographed in public/shared spaces, there has not been research with a focus on user perceptions of bystander-based wearable devices to enhance privacy. Thus, in this work, we focus on user perceptions of the FacePET device and/or similar wearables to enhance bystanders’ facial privacy. In our study, we found that 16 participants would use FacePET or similar devices to enhance their facialmore »privacy, and 17 participants agreed that if smart glasses had features to conceal users’ identities, it would allow them to become more popular.« less
  7. Methods for continuous user authentication have become important with the proliferation of mobile devices in m-Health and human-centered systems. These methods must guarantee user identity with high assurance, authenticate without explicit intervention, and be power-aware. We present an evaluation of the power consumption of collaborative authentication (coauthentication) as a continuous authentication method. Coauthentication is a single-factor method in which multiple registered devices work together to authenticate a user, minimizing obtrusiveness while providing high user authentication assurance. To evaluate coauthentication's power consumption, we conducted experiments using two Bluetooth-enabled mobile devices and a stand-alone server in a local area network and running coauthentication continuously for eight hours. We found that the protocol uses approximately between 1.19% and 4.0% of the total power used by the devices. These results give evidence of the feasibility of using coauthentication as a continuous authentication method in mobile devices from the power consumption perspective.
  8. Blockchain is a developing technology that can be utilized for secure data storage and sharing. In this work, we examine the cost of Blockchain-based data storage for constrained Internet of Things (IoT) devices. We had two phases in the study. In the first phase, we stored data retrieved from a temperature/humidity sensor connected to an Ethereum testnet blockchain using smart contracts in two different ways: first, appending the new data to the existing data, storing all sensor data; and second, overwriting the new data onto the existing data, storing only a recent portion of the data. In the second phase, we stored simulated data from several sensors on the blockchain assuming sensor data is numeric. We proposed a method for encoding the data from the sensors in one variable and compared the costs of storing the data in an array versus storing the encoded data from all sensors in one variable. We also compared the costs of carrying out the encoding within the smart contract versus outside the smart contract. In the first phase, our results indicate that overwriting data points is more cost-efficient than appending them. In the second phase, using the proposed encoding method to store the datamore »from several sensors costs significantly less than storing the data in an array, if the encoding is done outside the smart contract. If the encoding is carried out in the smart contract, the cost is still less than storing the data in an array, however, the difference is not significant. The study shows that even though expensive, for applications where the integrity and transparency of data are crucial, storing IoT sensor data on Ethereum could be a reliable solution.« less