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  1. Abstract CUPID is a next-generation bolometric experiment aiming at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay with ∼250 kg of isotopic mass of 100 Mo. It will operate at ∼10 mK in a cryostat currently hosting a similar-scale bolometric array for the CUORE experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy). CUPID will be based on large-volume scintillating bolometers consisting of 100 Mo-enriched Li 2 MoO 4 crystals, facing thin Ge-wafer-based bolometric light detectors. In the CUPID design, the detector structure is novel and needs to be validated. In particular, the CUORE cryostat presents a high level of mechanical vibrations due to the use of pulse tubes and the effect of vibrations on the detector performance must be investigated. In this paper we report the first test of the CUPID-design bolometric light detectors with NTD-Ge sensors in a dilution refrigerator equipped with a pulse tube in an above-ground lab. Light detectors are characterized in terms of sensitivity, energy resolution, pulse time constants, and noise power spectrum. Despite the challenging noisy environment due to pulse-tube-induced vibrations, we demonstrate that all the four tested light detectors comply with the CUPID goal in terms of intrinsic energy resolution of 100 eV RMS baseline noise. Indeed, we have measured 70–90 eV RMS for the four devices, which show an excellent reproducibility. We have also obtained high energy resolutions at the 356 keV line from a 133 Ba source, as good as Ge semiconductor γ detectors in this energy range. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Abstract An array of twelve 0.28 kg lithium molybdate (LMO) low-temperature bolometers equipped with 16 bolometric Ge light detectors, aiming at optimization of detector structure for CROSS and CUPID double-beta decay experiments, was constructed and tested in a low-background pulse-tube-based cryostat at the Canfranc underground laboratory in Spain. Performance of the scintillating bolometers was studied depending on the size of phonon NTD-Ge sensors glued to both LMO and Ge absorbers, shape of the Ge light detectors (circular vs. square, from two suppliers), in different light collection conditions (with and without reflector, with aluminum coated LMO crystal surface). The scintillating bolometer array was operated over 8 months in the low-background conditions that allowed to probe a very low, μBq/kg, level of the LMO crystals radioactive contamination by 228 Th and 226 Ra. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Abstract The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the most sensitive experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ ) in 130 Te. CUORE uses a cryogenic array of 988 TeO 2 calorimeters operated at ∼10 mK with a total mass of 741 kg. To further increase the sensitivity, the detector response must be well understood. Here, we present a non-linear thermal model for the CUORE experiment on a detector-by-detector basis. We have examined both equilibrium and dynamic electro-thermal models of detectors by numerically fitting non-linear differential equations to the detector data of a subset of CUORE channels which are well characterized and representative of all channels. We demonstrate that the hot-electron effect and electric-field dependence of resistance in NTD-Ge thermistors alone are inadequate to describe our detectors' energy-dependent pulse shapes. We introduce an empirical second-order correction factor in the exponential temperature dependence of the thermistor, which produces excellent agreement with energy-dependent pulse shape data up to 6 MeV. We also present a noise analysis using the fitted thermal parameters and show that the intrinsic thermal noise is negligible compared to the observed noise for our detectors. 
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  5. Abstract

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first cryogenic experiment searching for$$0\nu \beta \beta $$0νββdecay that has been able to reach the one-tonne mass scale. The detector, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, consists of an array of 988$${\mathrm{TeO}}_{2}$$TeO2crystals arranged in a compact cylindrical structure of 19 towers. CUORE began its first physics data run in 2017 at a base temperature of about 10 mK and in April 2021 released its$$3{\mathrm{rd}}$$3rdresult of the search for$$0\nu \beta \beta $$0νββ, corresponding to a tonne-year of$$\mathrm{TeO}_{2}$$TeO2exposure. This is the largest amount of data ever acquired with a solid state detector and the most sensitive measurement of$$0\nu \beta \beta $$0νββdecay in$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$130Teever conducted . We present the current status of CUORE search for$$0\nu \beta \beta $$0νββwith the updated statistics of one tonne-yr. We finally give an update of the CUORE background model and the measurement of the$${}^{130}\mathrm{Te}$$130Te$$2\nu \beta \beta $$2νββdecay half-life and decay to excited states of$${}^{130}\mathrm{Xe}$$130Xe, studies performed using an exposure of 300.7 kg yr.

     
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  6. Abstract CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification (CUPID) is a foreseen ton-scale array of Li 2 MoO 4 (LMO) cryogenic calorimeters with double readout of heat and light signals. Its scientific goal is to fully explore the inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses in the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100 Mo. Pile-up of standard double beta decay of the candidate isotope is a relevant background. We generate pile-up heat events via injection of Joule heater pulses with a programmable waveform generator in a small array of LMO crystals operated underground in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. This allows to label pile-up pulses and control both time difference and underlying amplitudes of individual heat pulses in the data. We present the performance of supervised learning classifiers on data and the attained pile-up rejection efficiency. 
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  7. Abstract The possibility that neutrinos may be their own antiparticles, unique among the known fundamental particles, arises from the symmetric theory of fermions proposed by Ettore Majorana in 1937 1 . Given the profound consequences of such Majorana neutrinos, among which is a potential explanation for the matter–antimatter asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis 2 , the Majorana nature of neutrinos commands intense experimental scrutiny globally; one of the primary experimental probes is neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ ) decay. Here we show results from the search for 0 νββ decay of 130 Te, using the latest advanced cryogenic calorimeters with the CUORE experiment 3 . CUORE, operating just 10 millikelvin above absolute zero, has pushed the state of the art on three frontiers: the sheer mass held at such ultralow temperatures, operational longevity, and the low levels of ionizing radiation emanating from the cryogenic infrastructure. We find no evidence for 0 νββ decay and set a lower bound of the process half-life as 2.2 × 10 25  years at a 90 per cent credibility interval. We discuss potential applications of the advances made with CUORE to other fields such as direct dark matter, neutrino and nuclear physics searches and large-scale quantum computing, which can benefit from sustained operation of large payloads in a low-radioactivity, ultralow-temperature cryogenic environment. 
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  8. Abstract CUPID will be a next generation experiment searching for the neutrinoless double $$\beta $$ β decay, whose discovery would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Based on the experience achieved with the CUORE experiment, presently taking data at LNGS, CUPID aims to reach a background free environment by means of scintillating Li $$_{2}$$ 2 $$^{100}$$ 100 MoO $$_4$$ 4 crystals coupled to light detectors. Indeed, the simultaneous heat and light detection allows us to reject the dominant background of $$\alpha $$ α particles, as proven by the CUPID-0 and CUPID-Mo demonstrators. In this work we present the results of the first test of the CUPID baseline module. In particular, we propose a new optimized detector structure and light sensors design to enhance the engineering and the light collection, respectively. We characterized the heat detectors, achieving an energy resolution of (5.9 ± 0.2) keV FWHM at the Q -value of $$^{100}$$ 100 Mo (about 3034 keV). We studied the light collection of the baseline CUPID design with respect to an alternative configuration which features gravity-assisted light detectors’ mounting. In both cases we obtained an improvement in the light collection with respect to past measures and we validated the particle identification capability of the detector, which ensures an $$\alpha $$ α particle rejection higher than 99.9%, fully satisfying the requirements for CUPID. 
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