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  1. ABSTRACT We combine the isothermal Jeans model and the model of adiabatic halo contraction into a semi-analytic procedure for computing the density profile of self-interacting dark-matter (SIDM) haloes with the gravitational influence from the inhabitant galaxies. The model agrees well with cosmological SIDM simulations over the entire core-forming stage up to the onset of gravothermal core-collapse. Using this model, we show that the halo response to baryons is more diverse in SIDM than in CDM and depends sensitively on galaxy size, a desirable feature in the context of the structural diversity of bright dwarfs. The fast speed of the method facilitates analyses that would be challenging for numerical simulations – notably, we quantify the SIDM halo response as functions of the baryonic properties, on a fine mesh grid spanned by the baryon-to-total-mass ratio, Mb/Mvir, and galaxy compactness, r1/2/Rvir; we show with high statistical precision that for typical Milky-Way-like systems, the SIDM profiles are similar to their CDM counterparts; and we delineate the regime of core-collapse in the Mb/Mvir − r1/2/Rvir space, for a given cross section and concentration. Finally, we compare the isothermal Jeans model with the more sophisticated gravothermal fluid model, and show that the former yields faster core formationmore »and agrees better with cosmological simulations. We attribute the difference to whether the target CDM halo is used as a boundary condition or as the initial condition for the gravothermal evolution, and thus comment on possible improvements of the fluid model. We have made our model publicly available at« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 23, 2024

    Understanding quenching mechanisms in low-mass galaxies is essential for understanding galaxy evolution overall. In particular, isolated galaxies are important tools to help disentangle the complex internal and external processes that impact star formation. Comparisons between quenched field and satellite galaxies in the low-mass regime offer a substantial opportunity for discovery, although very few quenched galaxies with masses below $M_{\star }\, \sim \, 10^{9} {\rm M}_{\odot }$ are known outside the virial radius, Rvir, of any host halo. Importantly, simulations and observations suggest that an in-between population of backsplash galaxies also exists that may complement interpretations of environmental quenching. Backsplash galaxies – like field galaxies – reside outside the virial radius of a host halo, but their star formation can be deeply impacted by previous interactions with more massive systems. In this paper, we report the concurrent discovery of a low-mass ($M_{\star }\, \sim \, 10^{7} {\rm M}_{\odot }$) quenched galaxy approximately 1Rvir in projection from the M81 group. We use surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) to investigate the possibility that the new galaxy, dw0910+7326 (nicknamed Blobby), is a backsplash galaxy or a more distant field galaxy. The measured SBF distance of $3.21\substack{+0.15 +0.41 \\-0.15 -0.36}$ Mpc indicates that Blobby likelymore »lies in the range 1.0 < R/Rvir < 2.7 outside the combined M81–M82 system. Given its distance and quiescence, Blobby is a good candidate for a backsplash galaxy and could provide hints about the formation and evolution of these interesting objects.

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  3. Abstract

    A key goal of heliophysics is to understand how cosmic rays propagate in the solar system’s complex, dynamic environment. One observable is solar modulation, i.e., how the flux and spectrum of cosmic rays change as they propagate inward. We construct an improved force-field model, taking advantage of new measurements of magnetic power spectral density by Parker Solar Probe to predict solar modulation within the Earth’s orbit. We find that modulation of cosmic rays between the Earth and Sun is modest, at least at solar minimum and in the ecliptic plane. Our results agree much better with the limited data on cosmic-ray radial gradients within Earth’s orbit than past treatments of the force-field model. Our predictions can be tested with forthcoming direct cosmic-ray measurements in the inner heliosphere by Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter. They are also important for interpreting the gamma-ray emission from the Sun due to scattering of cosmic rays with solar matter and photons.

  4. ABSTRACT Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) cosmologies admit an enormous diversity of dark matter (DM) halo density profiles, from low-density cores to high-density core-collapsed cusps. The possibility of the growth of high central density in low-mass haloes, accelerated if haloes are subhaloes of larger systems, has intriguing consequences for small-halo searches with substructure lensing. However, following the evolution of ${\lesssim}10^8 \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ subhaloes in lens-mass systems (${\sim}10^{13}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$) is computationally expensive with traditional N-body simulations. In this work, we develop a new hybrid semi-analytical + N-body method to study the evolution of SIDM subhaloes with high fidelity, from core formation to core-collapse, in staged simulations. Our method works best for small subhaloes (≲1/1000 host mass), for which the error caused by dynamical friction is minimal. We are able to capture the evaporation of subhalo particles by interactions with host halo particles, an effect that has not yet been fully explored in the context of subhalo core-collapse. We find three main processes drive subhalo evolution: subhalo internal heat outflow, host-subhalo evaporation, and tidal effects. The subhalo central density grows only when the heat outflow outweighs the energy gain from evaporation and tidal heating. Thus, evaporation delays or even disrupts subhalo core-collapse. Wemore »map out the parameter space for subhaloes to core-collapse, finding that it is nearly impossible to drive core-collapse in subhaloes in SIDM models with constant cross-sections. Any discovery of ultracompact dark substructures with future substructure lensing observations favours additional degrees of freedom, such as velocity-dependence, in the cross-section.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present results from a resolved stellar population search for dwarf satellite galaxies of six nearby (D < 5 Mpc), sub-Milky Way mass hosts using deep (m ∼ 27 mag) optical imaging from the Large Binocular Telescope. We perform image simulations to quantify our detection efficiency for dwarfs over a large range in luminosity and size, and develop a fast catalogue-based emulator that includes a treatment of unresolved photometric blending. We discover no new dwarf satellites, but we recover two previously known dwarfs (DDO 113 and LV J1228+4358) with MV < −12 that lie in our survey volume. We preview a new theoretical framework to predict satellite luminosity functions using analytical probability distribution functions and apply it to our sample, finding that we predict one fewer classical dwarf and one more faint dwarf (MV ∼ −7.5) than we find in our observational sample (i.e. the observational sample is slightly top-heavy). However, the overall number of dwarfs in the observational sample (2) is in good agreement with the theoretical expectations. Interestingly, DDO 113 shows signs of environmental quenching and LV J1228+4358 is tidally disrupting, suggesting that low-mass hosts may affect their satellites more severely than previously believed.
  6. ABSTRACT The satellite populations of the Milky Way, and Milky Way mass galaxies in the local Universe, have been extensively studied to constrain dark matter and galaxy evolution physics. Recently, there has been a shift to studying satellites of hosts with stellar masses between that of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way, since they can provide further insight on hierarchical structure formation, environmental effects on satellites, and the nature of dark matter. Most work is focused on the Local Volume, and little is still known about low-mass host galaxies at higher redshift. To improve our understanding of the evolution of satellite populations of low-mass hosts, we study satellite galaxy populations as a function of host stellar mass 9.5 < log (M*/M⊙) < 10.5 and redshifts 0.1 < $z$ < 0.8 in the COSMOS survey, making this the first study of satellite systems of low-mass hosts across half the age of the universe. We find that the satellite populations of low-mass host galaxies, which we measure down to satellite masses equivalent to the Fornax dwarf spheroidal satellite of the Milky Way, remain mostly unchanged through time. We observe a weak dependence between host stellar mass and number of satellites permore »host, which suggests that the stellar masses of the hosts are in the power-law regime of the stellar mass to halo mass relation (M*–Mhalo) for low-mass galaxies. Finally, we test the constraining power of our measured cumulative luminosity function to calculate the low-mass end slope of the M*–Mhalo relation. These new satellite luminosity function measurements are consistent with Lamda cold dark matter predictions.« less