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  1. Modern hardware complexity makes it challenging to determine if a given microarchitecture adheres to a particular memory consistency model (MCM). This observation inspired the Check tools, which formally check that a specific microarchitecture correctly implements an MCM with respect to a suite of litmus test pro-grams. Unfortunately, despite their effectiveness and efficiency, theCheck tools must be supplied a microarchitecture in the guise of a manually constructed axiomatic specification, called a 𝜇spec model. To facilitate MCM verification—and enable the Check tools to consume processor RTL directly—we introduce a methodology and associated tool, rtl2𝜇spec, for automatically synthesizing 𝜇spec models from processor designs written in Verilog or SystemVerilog, with the help of modest user-provided design metadata. As a case study, we use rtl2𝜇spec to facilitate the Check-based verification of the four-core RISC-V V-scale (multi-V-scale) processor’s MCM implementation. We show that rtl2𝜇spec can synthesize a complete, and proven correct by construction, 𝜇spec model from the SystemVerilog design of the multi-V-scale processor in 6.84 minutes. Subsequent Check-based MCM verification of the synthesized 𝜇spec model takes less than one second per litmus test.
  2. Developers are always on the lookout for simple solutions to manage their applications on cloud platforms. Major cloud providers have already been offering automatic elasticity management solutions (e.g., AWS Lambda, Azure durable function) to users. However, many cloud applications are stateful --- while executing, functions need to share their state with others. Providing elasticity for such stateful functions is much more challenging, as a deployment/elasticity decision for a stateful entity can strongly affect others in ways which are hard to predict without any application knowledge. Existing solutions either only support stateless applications (e.g., AWS Lambda) or only provide limited elasticity management (e.g., Azure durable function) to stateful applications. PLASMA (Programmable Elasticity for Stateful Cloud Computing Applications) is a programming framework for elastic stateful cloud applications. It includes (1) an elasticity programming language as a second "level" of programming (complementing the main application programming language) for describing elasticity behavior, and (2) a novel semantics-aware elasticity management runtime that tracks program execution and acts upon application features as suggested by elasticity behavior. We have implemented 10+ applications with PLASMA. Extensive evaluation on Amazon AWS shows that PLASMA significantly improves their efficiency, e.g., achieving same performance as a vanilla setup with 25% fewermore »resources, or improving performance by 40% compared to the default setup.« less