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  1. Abstract

    The objective of the cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy (CRES) technology is to build precise particle energy spectra. This is achieved by identifying the start frequencies of charged particle trajectories which, when exposed to an external magnetic field, leave semi-linear profiles (called tracks) in the time–frequency plane. Due to the need for excellent instrumental energy resolution in application, highly efficient and accurate track reconstruction methods are desired. Deep learning convolutional neural networks (CNNs) - particularly suited to deal with information-sparse data and which offer precise foreground localization—may be utilized to extract track properties from measured CRES signals (called events) with relative computational ease. In this work, we develop a novel machine learning based model which operates a CNN and a support vector machine in tandem to perform this reconstruction. A primary application of our method is shown on simulated CRES signals which mimic those of the Project 8 experiment—a novel effort to extract the unknown absolute neutrino mass value from a precise measurement of tritiumβ-decay energy spectrum. When compared to a point-clustering based technique used as a baseline, we show a relative gain of 24.1% in event reconstruction efficiency and comparable performance in accuracy of track parameter reconstruction.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 3, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) is a technique for measuring the kinetic energy of charged particles through a precision measurement of the frequency of the cyclotron radiation generated by the particle's motion in a magnetic field. The Project 8 collaboration is developing a next-generation neutrino mass measurement experiment based on CRES. One approach is to use a phased antenna array, which surrounds a volume of tritium gas, to detect and measure the cyclotron radiation of the resulting β-decay electrons. To validate the feasibility of this method, Project 8 has designed a test stand to benchmark the performance of an antenna array at reconstructing signals that mimic those of genuine CRES events. To generate synthetic CRES events, a novel probe antenna has been developed, which emits radiation with characteristics similar to the cyclotron radiation produced by charged particles in magnetic fields. This paper outlines the design, construction, and characterization of this Synthetic Cyclotron Antenna (SYNCA). Furthermore, we perform a series of measurements that use the SYNCA to test the position reconstruction capabilities of the digital beamforming reconstruction technique. We find that the SYNCA produces radiation with characteristics closely matching those expected for cyclotron radiation and reproduces experimentally the phenomenology of digital beamforming simulations of true CRES signals. 
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