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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 13, 2024
  2. Recently, the authors showed that Reed–Muller (RM) codes achieve capacity on binary memoryless symmetric (BMS) channels with respect to bit error rate. This paper extends that work by showing that RM codes defined on non-binary fields, known as generalized RM codes, achieve capacity on sufficiently symmetric non-binary channels with respect to symbol error rate. The new proof also simplifies the previous approach (for BMS channels) in a variety of ways that may be of independent interest.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  3. This paper considers the design and decoding of polar codes for general classical-quantum (CQ) channels. It focuses on decoding via belief-propagation with quantum messages (BPQM) and, in particular, the idea of paired-measurement BPQM (PM-BPQM) decoding. Since the PM-BPQM decoder admits a classical density evolution (DE) analysis, one can use DE to design a polar code for any CQ channel and then efficiently compute the trade-off between code rate and error probability. We have also implemented and tested a classical simulation of our PM-BPQM decoder for polar codes. While the decoder can be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer, simulating the decoder on a classical computer actually has exponential complexity. Thus, simulation results for the decoder are somewhat limited and are included primarily to validate our theoretical results.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Belief propagation (BP) is a classical algorithm that approximates the marginal distribution associated with a factor graph by passing messages between adjacent nodes in the graph. It gained popularity in the 1990’s as a powerful decoding algorithm for LDPC codes. In 2016, Renes introduced a belief propagation with quantum messages (BPQM) and described how it could be used to decode classical codes defined by tree factor graphs that are sent over the classical-quantum pure-state channel. In this work, we propose an extension of BPQM to general binary-input symmetric classical-quantum (BSCQ) channels based on the implementation of a symmetric "paired measurement". While this new paired-measurement BPQM (PMBPQM) approach is suboptimal in general, it provides a concrete BPQM decoder that can be implemented with local operations. Finally, we demonstrate that density evolution can be used to analyze the performance of PMBPQM on tree factor graphs. As an application, we compute noise thresholds of some LDPC codes with BPQM decoding for a class of BSCQ channels.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  5. In 2018, Renes [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 577-592 (2018)] developed a general theory of channel duality for classical-input quantum-output channels. His result shows that a number of well-known duality results for linear codes on the binary erasure channel can be extended to general classical channels at the expense of using dual problems which are intrinsically quantum mechanical. One special case of this duality is a connection between coding for error correction on the quantum pure-state channel (PSC) and coding for wiretap secrecy on the classical binary symmetric channel (BSC). Similarly, coding for error correction on the BSC is related to wire-tap secrecy on the PSC. While this result has important implications for classical coding, the machinery behind the general duality result is rather challenging for researchers without a strong background in quantum information theory. In this work, we leverage prior results for linear codes on PSCs to give an alternate derivation of the aforementioned special case by computing closed-form expressions for the performance metrics. The noted prior results include the optimality of square-root measurement for linear codes on the PSC and the Fourier duality of linear codes.
  6. Abstract

    For space-based laser communications, when the mean photon number per received optical pulse is much smaller than one, there is a large gap between communications capacity achievable with a receiver that performs individual pulse-by-pulse detection, and the quantum-optimal “joint-detection receiver” that acts collectively on long codeword-blocks of modulated pulses; an effect often termed “superadditive capacity”. In this paper, we consider the simplest scenario where a large superadditive capacity is known: a pure-loss channel with a coherent-state binary phase-shift keyed (BPSK) modulation. The two BPSK states can be mapped conceptually to two non-orthogonal states of a qubit, described by an inner product that is a function of the mean photon number per pulse. Using this map, we derive an explicit construction of the quantum circuit of a joint-detection receiver based on a recent idea of “belief-propagation with quantum messages” (BPQM). We quantify its performance improvement over the Dolinar receiver that performs optimal pulse-by-pulse detection, which represents the best “classical” approach. We analyze the scheme rigorously and show that it achieves the quantum limit of minimum average error probability in discriminating 8 (BPSK) codewords of a length-5 binary linear code with a tree factor graph. Our result suggests that a BPQMmore »receiver might attain the Holevo capacity of this BPSK-modulated pure-loss channel. Moreover, our receiver circuit provides an alternative proposal for a quantum supremacy experiment, targeted at a specific application that can potentially be implemented on a small, special-purpose, photonic quantum computer capable of performing cat-basis universal qubit logic.

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  7. Successive cancellation list decoding of polar codes provides very good performance for short to moderate block lengths. However, the list size required to approach the performance of maximum-likelihood decoding is still not well understood theoretically. This work identifies information-theoretic quantities that are closely related to this required list size. It also provides a natural approximation for these quantities that can be computed efficiently even for very long codes. Simulation results are provided for the binary erasure channel as well as the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channel.