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  1. Abstract Objective . Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore motor function but are currently limited by electrode count and long-term recording stability. These challenges may be solved through the use of free-floating ‘motes’ which wirelessly transmit recorded neural signals, if power consumption can be kept within safe levels when scaling to thousands of motes. Here, we evaluated a pulse-interval modulation (PIM) communication scheme for infrared (IR)-based motes that aims to reduce the wireless data rate and system power consumption. Approach . To test PIM’s ability to efficiently communicate neural information, we simulated the communication scheme in a real-time closed-loop BMI with non-human primates. Additionally, we performed circuit simulations of an IR-based 1000-mote system to calculate communication accuracy and total power consumption. Main results . We found that PIM at 1 kb/s per channel maintained strong correlations with true firing rate and matched online BMI performance of a traditional wired system. Closed-loop BMI tests suggest that lags as small as 30 ms can have significant performance effects. Finally, unlike other IR communication schemes, PIM is feasible in terms of power, and neural data can accurately be recovered on a receiver using 3 mW for 1000 channels. Significance. These resultsmore »suggest that PIM-based communication could significantly reduce power usage of wireless motes to enable higher channel-counts for high-performance BMIs.« less
  2. Abstract

    Memristors have emerged as transformative devices to enable neuromorphic and in‐memory computing, where success requires the identification and development of materials that can overcome challenges in retention and device variability. Here, high‐entropy oxide composed of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W oxides is first demonstrated as a switching material for valence change memory. This multielement oxide material provides uniform distribution and higher concentration of oxygen vacancies, limiting the stochastic behavior in resistive switching. (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) high‐entropy‐oxide‐based memristors manifest the “cocktail effect,” exhibiting comparable retention with HfO2‐ or Ta2O5‐based memristors while also demonstrating the gradual conductance modulation observed in WO3‐based memristors. The electrical characterization of these high‐entropy‐oxide‐based memristors demonstrates forming‐free operation, low device and cycle variability, gradual conductance modulation, 6‐bit operation, and long retention which are promising for neuromorphic applications.