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Creators/Authors contains: "Pilla, Rachel M."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Reductions in ice cover duration and earlier ice breakup are two of the most prevalent responses to climate warming in lakes in recent decades. In dimictic lakes, the subsequent periods of spring mixing and summer stratification are both likely to change in response to these phenological changes in ice cover. Here, we used a modeling approach to simulate the effect of changes in latitude on long‐term trends in duration of ice cover, spring mixing, and summer stratification by “moving” a well‐studied lake across a range of latitudes in North America (35.2°N to 65.7°N). We found a changepoint relationship between the timing of ice breakup vs. spring mixing duration on 09 May. When ice breakup occurred before 09 May, which routinely occurred at latitudes < 47°N, spring mixing was longer and more variable; when ice breakup occurred after 09 May at latitudes > 47°N, spring mixing averaged 1 day with low variability. In contrast, the duration of summer stratification showed a relatively slower rate of increase when ice breakup occurred before 09 May (< 47°N) compared to a 109% faster rate of increase when ice breakup was after 09 May (> 47°N). Projected earlier ice breakup can result in important nonlinear changes in themore »relative duration of spring mixing and summer stratification, which can lead to mixing regime shifts that influence the severity of oxygen depletion differentially across latitudes.

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  5. We present and evaluate an update to the process‐based lake model MyLake that includes a time‐varying linkage between light attenuation of both photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation wavelengths to changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In many parts of northeastern North America and Europe, DOC in lakes has rapidly increased, leading to reduced water transparency and increases in light attenuation. These changes alter the vertical light and heat distribution that affect vertical structuring of temperature and dissolved oxygen. We use this model update to test the responsiveness of PAR and UV attenuation to short‐term fluctuations in DOC and with a test case of long‐term browning at Lake Giles (Pennsylvania). Lake Giles has browned significantly since the late 1980s, and three decades of detailed empirical data have indicated more than a doubling of DOC concentrations, and consequent increases in PAR and UV attenuation, warming surface waters, cooling deep waters, and increasing deepwater oxygen depletion. We found that the model performance improved by 16% and 52% for long‐term trends in PAR and UV attenuation, respectively, when these coefficients respond directly to in‐lake DOC concentrations. Further, long‐term trends in surface water warming, deepwater cooling, and deepwater oxygen depletion in Lakemore »Giles were better captured by the model following this update, and were very rapid due to its high water transparency and low DOC. Hence, incorporating a responsive link between DOC and light attenuation in lake models is key to understanding long‐term lake browning patterns, mechanisms, and ecological consequences.

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    Abstract Lake surfaces are warming worldwide, raising concerns about lake organism responses to thermal habitat changes. Species may cope with temperature increases by shifting their seasonality or their depth to track suitable thermal habitats, but these responses may be constrained by ecological interactions, life histories or limiting resources. Here we use 32 million temperature measurements from 139 lakes to quantify thermal habitat change (percentage of non-overlap) and assess how this change is exacerbated by potential habitat constraints. Long-term temperature change resulted in an average 6.2% non-overlap between thermal habitats in baseline (1978–1995) and recent (1996–2013) time periods, with non-overlap increasing to 19.4% on average when habitats were restricted by season and depth. Tropical lakes exhibited substantially higher thermal non-overlap compared with lakes at other latitudes. Lakes with high thermal habitat change coincided with those having numerous endemic species, suggesting that conservation actions should consider thermal habitat change to preserve lake biodiversity.
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