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Creators/Authors contains: "Pinsonneault, Marc H."

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    Although stellar radii from asteroseismic scaling relations agree at the per cent level with independent estimates for main sequence and most first-ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars, the scaling relations over-predict radii at the tens of per cent level for the most luminous stars ($R \gtrsim 30 \, \mathrm{R}_{\odot }$). These evolved stars have significantly superadiabatic envelopes, and the extent of these regions increase with increasing radius. However, adiabaticity is assumed in the theoretical derivation of the scaling relations as well as in corrections to the large frequency separation. Here, we show that a part of the scaling relation radius inflation may arise from this assumption of adiabaticity. With a new reduction of Kepler asteroseismic data, we find that scaling relation radii and Gaia radii agree to within at least 2 per cent for stars with $R \lesssim 30\, \mathrm{R}_{\odot }$, when treated under the adiabatic assumption. The accuracy of scaling relation radii for stars with $50\, \mathrm{R}_{\odot }\lesssim R \lesssim 100\, \mathrm{R}_{\odot }$, however, is not better than $10~{{\ \rm per \, cent}}-15~{{\ \rm per \, cent}}$ using adiabatic large frequency separation corrections. We find that up to one third of this disagreement for stars with $R \approx 100\, \mathrm{R}_{\odot }$ could be caused by the adiabatic assumption, and that this adiabatic error increases with radius to reach 10 per cent at the tip of the RGB. We demonstrate that, unlike the solar case, the superadiabatic gradient remains large very deep in luminous stars. A large fraction of the acoustic cavity is also in the optically thin atmosphere. The observed discrepancies may therefore reflect the simplified treatment of convection and atmospheres.

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  2. Abstract

    Differential rotation is thought to be responsible for the dynamo process in stars like our Sun, driving magnetic activity and starspots. We report that starspot measurements in the Praesepe open cluster are strongly enhanced only for stars that depart from standard models of rotational evolution. A decoupling of the spin-down history between the core and envelope explains both the activity and rotation anomalies: surface rotational evolution is stalled by interior angular momentum redistribution, and the resultant radial shears enhance starspot activity. These anomalies provide evidence for an evolving front of shear-enhanced activity affecting the magnetic and rotational evolution of cool stars and the high-energy environments of their planetary companions for hundreds of millions to billions of years on the main sequence.

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    We measure star-spot filling fractions for 240 stars in the Pleiades and M67 open star clusters using APOGEE high-resolution H-band spectra. For this work, we developed a modified spectroscopic pipeline which solves for star-spot filling fraction and star-spot temperature contrast. We exclude binary stars, finding that the large majority of binaries in these clusters (80 per cent) can be identified from Gaia DR3 and APOGEE criteria – important for field star applications. Our data agree well with independent activity proxies, indicating that this technique recovers real star-spot signals. In the Pleiades, filling fractions saturate at a mean level of 0.248 ± 0.005 for active stars with a decline at slower rotation; we present fitting functions as a function of Rossby number. In M67, we recover low mean filling fractions of 0.030 ± 0.008 and 0.003 ± 0.002 for main sequence GK stars and evolved red giants, respectively, confirming that the technique does not produce spurious spot signals in inactive stars. Star-spots also modify the derived spectroscopic effective temperatures and convective overturn time-scales. Effective temperatures for active stars are offset from inactive ones by −109 ± 11 K, in agreement with the Pecaut & Mamajek empirical scale. Star-spot filling fractions at the level measured in active stars changes their inferred overturn time-scale, which biases the derived threshold for saturation. Finally, we identify a population of stars statistically discrepant from mean activity–Rossby relations and present evidence that these are genuine departures from a Rossby scaling. Our technique is applicable to the full APOGEE catalogue, with broad applications to stellar, galactic, and exoplanetary astrophysics.

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  4. Abstract Known sources of lithium (Li) in the universe include the Big Bang, novae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and cosmic-ray spallation. During their longer-lived evolutionary phases, stars are not expected to add to the Li budget of the Galaxy, but to largely deplete it. In this context, recent analyses of Li data from GALAH and LAMOST for field red clump (RC) stars have concluded that there is the need for a new production channel of Li, ubiquitous among low-mass stars, and that would be triggered on the upper red giant branch (RGB) or at helium ignition. This is distinct from the Li-rich giant problem and reflects bulk RC star properties. We provide an analysis of the GALAH Li data that accounts for the distribution of progenitor masses of field RC stars observed today. Such progenitors are different than today’s field RGB stars. Using standard post-main-sequence stellar evolution, we show that the distribution of Li among field RC giants as observed by GALAH is consistent with standard model predictions, and does not require new Li production mechanisms. Our model predicts a large fraction of very low Li abundances from low-mass progenitors, with higher abundances from higher mass ones. Moreover, there should be a large number of upper limits for RC giants, and higher abundances should correspond to higher masses. The most recent GALAH data indeed confirm the presence of large numbers of upper limits, and a much lower mean Li abundance in RC stars, in concordance with our interpretation. 
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  5. Abstract

    The bright starλSer hosts a hot Neptune with a minimum mass of 13.6Mand a 15.5 day orbit. It also appears to be a solar analog, with a mean rotation period of 25.8 days and surface differential rotation very similar to the Sun. We aim to characterize the fundamental properties of this system and constrain the evolutionary pathway that led to its present configuration. We detect solar-like oscillations in time series photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and we derive precise asteroseismic properties from detailed modeling. We obtain new spectropolarimetric data, and we use them to reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field morphology. We reanalyze the complete time series of chromospheric activity measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory, and we present new X-ray and ultraviolet observations from the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes. Finally, we use the updated observational constraints to assess the rotational history of the star and estimate the wind braking torque. We conclude that the remaining uncertainty on the stellar age currently prevents an unambiguous interpretation of the properties ofλSer, and that the rate of angular momentum loss appears to be higher than for other stars with a similar Rossby number. Future asteroseismic observations may help to improve the precision of the stellar age.

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  7. Abstract

    We present the third and final data release of the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program (K2 GAP) for Campaigns C1–C8 and C10–C18. We provide asteroseismic radius and mass coefficients,κRandκM, for ∼19,000 red giant stars, which translate directly to radius and mass given a temperature. As such, K2 GAP DR3 represents the largest asteroseismic sample in the literature to date. K2 GAP DR3 stellar parameters are calibrated to be on an absolute parallactic scale based on Gaia DR2, with red giant branch and red clump evolutionary state classifications provided via a machine-learning approach. Combining these stellar parameters with GALAH DR3 spectroscopy, we determine asteroseismic ages with precisions of ∼20%–30% and compare age-abundance relations to Galactic chemical evolution models among both low- and high-αpopulations forα, light, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements. We confirm recent indications in the literature of both increased Ba production at late Galactic times as well as significant contributions tor-process enrichment from prompt sources associated with, e.g., core-collapse supernovae. With an eye toward other Galactic archeology applications, we characterize K2 GAP DR3 uncertainties and completeness using injection tests, suggesting that K2 GAP DR3 is largely unbiased in mass/age, with uncertainties of 2.9% (stat.) ± 0.1% (syst.) and 6.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) inκRandκMfor red giant branch stars and 4.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) and 11% (stat.) ± 0.9% (syst.) for red clump stars. We also identify percent-level asteroseismic systematics, which are likely related to the time baseline of the underlying data, and which therefore should be considered in TESS asteroseismic analysis.

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