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  1. Abstract We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2021aefx. The early-time u -band light curve shows an excess flux when compared to normal SNe Ia. We suggest that the early excess blue flux may be due to a rapid change in spectral velocity in the first few days post explosion, produced by the emission of the Ca ii H&K feature passing from the u to the B bands on the timescale of a few days. This effect could be dominant for all SNe Ia that have broad absorption features and early-time velocities over 25,000 km s −1 . It is likely to be one of the main causes of early excess u -band flux in SNe Ia that have early-time high velocities. This effect may also be dominant in the UV filters, as well as in places where the SN spectral energy distribution is quickly rising to longer wavelengths. The rapid change in velocity can only produce a monotonic change (in flux-space) in the u band. For objects that explode at lower velocities, and have a more structured shape in the early excess emission, there must also be an additional parameter producing themore »early-time diversity. More early-time observations, in particular early spectra, are required to determine how prominent this effect is within SNe Ia.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but withmore »a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT We present observations of SN 2020fqv, a Virgo-cluster type II core-collapse supernova (CCSN) with a high temporal resolution light curve from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) covering the time of explosion; ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) starting 3.3 d post-explosion; ground-based spectroscopic observations starting 1.1 d post-explosion; along with extensive photometric observations. Massive stars have complicated mass-loss histories leading up to their death as CCSNe, creating circumstellar medium (CSM) with which the SNe interact. Observations during the first few days post-explosion can provide important information about the mass-loss rate during the late stages of stellar evolution. Model fits to the quasi-bolometric light curve of SN 2020fqv reveal  0.23 M⊙ of CSM confined within  1450 R⊙ (1014 cm) from its progenitor star. Early spectra (<4 d post-explosion), both from HST and ground-based observatories, show emission features from high-ionization metal species from the outer, optically thin part of this CSM. We find that the CSM is consistent with an eruption caused by the injection of ∼5 × 1046 erg into the stellar envelope ∼300 d pre-explosion, potentially from a nuclear burning instability at the onset of oxygen burning. Light-curve fitting, nebular spectroscopy, and pre-explosion HST imaging consistently point to a red supergiant (RSG)more »progenitor with $M_{\rm ZAMS}\approx 13.5\!-\!15 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, typical for SN II progenitor stars. This finding demonstrates that a typical RSG, like the progenitor of SN 2020fqv, has a complicated mass-loss history immediately before core collapse.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2023
  4. Abstract We present a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic analysis of 13 super-Chandrasekhar-mass/2003fg-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Nine of these objects were observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The 2003fg-like SNe have slowly declining light curves (Δ m 15 ( B ) < 1.3 mag), and peak absolute B -band magnitudes of −19 < M B < −21 mag. Many of the 2003fg-like SNe are located in the same part of the luminosity–width relation as normal SNe Ia. In the optical B and V bands, the 2003fg-like SNe look like normal SNe Ia, but at redder wavelengths they diverge. Unlike other luminous SNe Ia, the 2003fg-like SNe generally have only one i -band maximum, which peaks after the epoch of the B -band maximum, while their near-IR (NIR) light-curve rise times can be ≳40 days longer than those of normal SNe Ia. They are also at least 1 mag brighter in the NIR bands than normal SNe Ia, peaking above M H = −19 mag, and generally have negative Hubble residuals, which may be the cause of some systematics in dark-energy experiments. Spectroscopically, the 2003fg-like SNe exhibit peculiarities such as unburnt carbon well past maximum light, a large spread (8000–12,000more »km s −1 ) in Si ii λ 6355 velocities at maximum light with no rapid early velocity decline, and no clear H -band break at +10 days. We find that SNe with a larger pseudo-equivalent width of C ii at maximum light have lower Si ii λ 6355 velocities and more slowly declining light curves. There are also multiple factors that contribute to the peak luminosity of 2003fg-like SNe. The explosion of a C–O degenerate core inside a carbon-rich envelope is consistent with these observations. Such a configuration may come from the core-degenerate scenario.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 30, 2022
  5. We present the H-band wavelength region of 37 postmaximum light near-infrared spectra of three normal, nine transitional, and four subluminous type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), extending from +5 days to +20 days relative to the epoch of B-band maximum. We introduce a new observable, the blue-edge velocity, v edge, of the prominent Fe/Co/Ni-peak H-band emission feature, which is quantitatively measured. The v edge parameter is found to decrease over subtype ranging from around −14,000 km s−1 for normal SNe Ia, to −10,000 km s−1 for transitional SNe Ia, down to −5000 km s−1 for the subluminous SNe Ia. Furthermore, inspection of the +10 ± 3 days spectra indicates that v edge is correlated with the color-stretch parameter, s BV , and hence with peak luminosity. These results follow the previous findings that brighter SNe Ia tend to have 56Ni located at higher velocities as compared to subluminous objects. As v edge is a model-independent parameter, we propose it can be used in combination with traditional observational diagnostics to provide a new avenue to robustly distinguish between leading SNe Ia explosion models.
  6. ABSTRACT We present observations of ASASSN-19dj, a nearby tidal disruption event (TDE) discovered in the post-starburst galaxy KUG 0810+227 by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) at a distance of d ≃ 98 Mpc. We observed ASASSN-19dj from −21 to 392 d relative to peak ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission using high-cadence, multiwavelength spectroscopy and photometry. From the ASAS-SN g-band data, we determine that the TDE began to brighten on 2019 February 6.8 and for the first 16 d the rise was consistent with a flux ∝t2 power law. ASASSN-19dj peaked in the UV/optical on 2019 March 6.5 (MJD = 58548.5) at a bolometric luminosity of L = (6.2 ± 0.2) × 1044 erg s−1. Initially remaining roughly constant in X-rays and slowly fading in the UV/optical, the X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude ∼225 d after peak, resulting from the expansion of the X-ray emitting region. The late-time X-ray emission is well fitted by a blackbody with an effective radius of ∼1 × 1012 cm and a temperature of ∼6 × 105 K. The X-ray hardness ratio becomes softer after brightening and then returns to a harder state as the X-rays fade. Analysis of Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey images reveals a nuclear outburst roughly 14.5 yr earlier with a smooth declinemore »and a luminosity of LV ≥ 1.4 × 1043 erg s−1, although the nature of the flare is unknown. ASASSN-19dj occurred in the most extreme post-starburst galaxy yet to host a TDE, with Lick HδA = 7.67 ± 0.17 Å.« less
  7. Abstract SN 2017jgh is a type IIb supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS during the C16/C17 campaigns of the Kepler/K2 mission. Here we present the Kepler/K2 and ground based observations of SN 2017jgh, which captured the shock cooling of the progenitor shock breakout with an unprecedented cadence. This event presents a unique opportunity to investigate the progenitors of stripped envelope supernovae. By fitting analytical models to the SN 2017jgh lightcurve, we find that the progenitor of SN 2017jgh was likely a yellow supergiant with an envelope radius of ∼50 − 290 R⊙, and an envelope mass of ∼0 − 1.7 M⊙. SN 2017jgh likely had a shock velocity of ∼7500 − 10300 km s−1. Additionally, we use the lightcurve of SN 2017jgh to investigate how early observations of the rise contribute to constraints on progenitor models. Fitting just the ground based observations, we find an envelope radius of ∼50 − 330 R⊙, an envelope mass of ∼0.3 − 1.7 M⊙ and a shock velocity of ∼9, 000 − 15, 000 km s−1. Without the rise, the explosion time can not be well constrained which leads to a systematic offset in the velocity parameter and larger uncertainties in the mass and radius. Therefore, it is likely that progenitor property estimates throughmore »these models may have larger systematic uncertainties than previously calculated.« less