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  1. Abstract Observations of high-redshift galaxies ( z > 5) have shown that these galaxies have extreme emission lines with equivalent widths much larger than their local star-forming counterparts. Extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) in the nearby universe are likely analogs to galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization and provide nearby laboratories to understand the physical processes important to the early universe. We use Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Large Binocular Telescope/Multi-Object Double Spectrographs spectra to study two nearby EELGs, J104457 and J141851. The far-UV spectra indicate that these two galaxies contain stellar populations with ages ≲10 Myr and metallicities ≤0.15 Z ⊙ . We use photoionization modeling to compare emission lines from models of single-age bursts of star formation to observed emission lines and find that the single-age bursts do not reproduce high-ionization lines including [O iii ] or very-high-ionization lines like He ii or O iv ]. Photoionization modeling using the stellar populations fit from the UV continuum similarly is not capable of reproducing the very-high-energy emission lines. We add a blackbody to the stellar populations fit from the UV continuum to model the necessary high-energy photons to reproduce the very-high-ionization lines of He ii and O iv ]. We find that we need a blackbody of 80,000 K and ∼45%–55% of the luminosity from the blackbody and young stellar population to reproduce the very-high-ionization lines while simultaneously reproducing the low-, intermediate-, and high-ionization emission lines. Our self-consistent model of the ionizing spectra of two nearby EELGs indicates the presence of a previously unaccounted-for source of hard ionizing photons in reionization analogs. 
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  2. Abstract

    The gravitational microlensing technique is most sensitive to planets in a Jupiter-like orbit and has detected more than 200 planets. However, only a few wide-orbit (s> 2) microlensing planets have been discovered, wheresis the planet-to-host separation normalized to the angular Einstein ring radius,θE. Here, we present the discovery and analysis of a strong candidate wide-orbit microlensing planet in the event OGLE-2017-BLG-0448. The whole light curve exhibits long-term residuals to the static binary-lens single-source model, so we investigate the residuals by adding the microlensing parallax, microlensing xallarap, an additional lens, or an additional source. For the first time, we observe a complex degeneracy between all four effects. The wide-orbit models withs∼ 2.5 and a planet-to-host mass ratio ofq∼ 10−4are significantly preferred, but we cannot rule out the close models withs∼ 0.35 andq∼ 10−3. A Bayesian analysis based on a Galactic model indicates that, despite the complicated degeneracy, the surviving wide-orbit models all contain a super-Earth-mass to Neptune-mass planet at a projected planet-host separation of ∼6 au and the surviving close-orbit models all consist of a Jovian-mass planet at ∼1 au. The host star is probably an M or K dwarf. We discuss the implications of this dimension-degeneracy disaster on microlensing light-curve analysis and its potential impact on statistical studies.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We measure the Einstein radius of the single-lens microlensing event KMT-2022-BLG-2397 to beθE= 24.8 ± 3.6μas, placing it at the upper shore of the Einstein Desert, 9 ≲θE/μas ≲ 25, between free-floating planets (FFPs) and bulge brown dwarfs (BDs). In contrast to the six BD (25 ≲θE≲ 50) events presented by Gould et al. (2022), which all had giant-star source stars, KMT-2022-BLG-2397 has a dwarf-star source, with angular radiusθast∼ 0.9μas. This prompts us to study the relative utility of dwarf and giant sources for characterizing FFPs and BDs from finite-source point-lens (FSPL) microlensing events. We find “dwarfs” (including main-sequence stars and subgiants) are likely to yield twice as manyθEmeasurements for BDs and a comparable (but more difficult to quantify) improvement for FFPs. We show that neither current nor planned experiments will yield complete mass measurements of isolated bulge BDs, nor will any other planned experiment yield as manyθEmeasurements for these objects as the Korea Microlensing Telescope (KMT). Thus, the currently anticipated 10 yr KMT survey will remain the best way to study bulge BDs for several decades to come.

     
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  4. Aims. We systematically inspected the microlensing data acquired by the KMTNet survey during the previous seasons in order to find anomalous lensing events for which the anomalies in the lensing light curves cannot be explained by the usual binary-lens or binary-source interpretations. Methods. From the inspection, we find that interpreting the three lensing events OGLE-2018-BLG-0584, KMT-2018-BLG-2119, and KMT-2021-BLG-1122 requires four-body (lens+source) models, in which either both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S event) or the lens is a triple system (3L1S event). Following the analyses of the 2L2S events presented in our previous work, here we present the 3L1S analysis of the KMT-2021-BLG-1122. Results. It is found that the lens of the event KMT-2021-BLG-1122 is composed of three masses, in which the projected separations (normalized to the angular Einstein radius) and mass ratios between the lens companions and the primary are ( s 2 ,  q 2 )∼(1.4, 0.53) and ( s 3 ,  q 3 )∼(1.6, 0.24). By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the masses of the individual lens components are ( M 1 ,  M 2 ,  M 3 )∼(0.47  M ⊙ , 0.24  M ⊙ , 0.11  M ⊙ ). The companions are separated in projection from the primary by ( a ⊥, 2 ,  a ⊥, 3 )∼(3.5, 4.0) AU. The lens of KMT-2018-BLG-2119 is the first triple stellar system detected via microlensing. 
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  5. Abstract

    The dispersion in chemical abundances provides a very strong constraint on the processes that drive the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Due to its proximity, the spiral galaxy M33 has been the focus of numerous chemical abundance surveys to study the chemical enrichment and dispersion in abundances over large spatial scales. The CHemical Abundances Of Spirals project has observed ∼100 Hiiregions in M33 with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), producing the largest homogeneous sample of electron temperatures (Te) and direct abundances in this galaxy. Our LBT observations produce a robust oxygen abundance gradient of −0.037 ± 0.007 dex kpc−1and indicate a relatively small (0.043 ± 0.015 dex) intrinsic dispersion in oxygen abundance relative to this gradient. The dispersions in N/H and N/O are similarly small, and the abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar relative to O are consistent with the solar ratio as expected forα-process orα-process-dependent elements. Taken together, the ISM in M33 is chemically well-mixed and homogeneously enriched from inside out, with no evidence of significant abundance variations at a given radius in the galaxy. Our results are compared to those of the numerous studies in the literature, and we discuss possible contaminating sources that can inflate abundance dispersion measurements. Importantly, if abundances are derived from a singleTemeasurement andTeTerelationships are relied on for inferring the temperature in the unmeasured ionization zone, this can lead to systematic biases that increase the measured dispersion up to 0.11 dex.

     
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  6. Aims. We inspect the four microlensing events KMT-2021-BLG-1968, KMT-2021-BLG-2010, KMT-2022-BLG-0371, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013, for which the light curves exhibit partially covered short-term central anomalies. We conduct detailed analyses of the events with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomalies. Methods. We tested various models that can explain the anomalies of the individual events, including the binary-lens (2L1S) and binary-source (1L2S) interpretations. Under the 2L1S interpretation, we thoroughly inspected the parameter space to determine the existence of degenerate solutions, and if they existed, we tested whether the degeneracy could be resolved. Results. We find that the anomalies in KMT-2021-BLG-2010 and KMT-2022-BLG-1013 are uniquely defined by planetary-lens interpretations with planet-to-host mass ratios of q ~ 2.8 × 10 −3 and ~1.6 × 10 −3 , respectively. For KMT-2022-BLG-0371, a planetary solution with a mass ratio q ~ 4 × 10 −4 is strongly favored over the other three degenerate 2L1S solutions with different mass ratios based on the χ 2 and relative proper motion arguments, and a 1L2S solution is clearly ruled out. For KMT-2021-BLG-1968, on the other hand, we find that the anomaly can be explained either by a planetary or a binary-source interpretation, making it difficult to firmly identify the nature of the anomaly. From the Bayesian analyses of the identified planetary events, we estimate that the masses of the planet and host are ( M p / M J , M h / M ⊙ ) = (1.07 −0.68 +1.15 , 0.37 −0.23 +0.40 ), (0.26 −0.11 +0.13 , 0.63 −0.28 +0.32 ), and (0.31 −0.16 +0.46 , 0.18 −0.10 +0.28 ) for KMT-2021-BLG-2010L, KMT-2022-BLG-0371L, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013L, respectively. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Abstract We continue our program of publishing all planets (and possible planets) found by eye in 2021 Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) online data. We present four planets (KMT-2021-BLG-0712Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-0909Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-2478Lb, and KMT-2021-BLG-1105Lb), with planet-to-host mass ratios in the range − 3.3 ≲ log q ≲ − 2.2 . This brings the total of secure, by-eye, 2021 KMTNet planets to 16, including 8 in this series. The by-eye sample is an important check of the completeness of semiautomated detections, which are the basis for statistical analyses. One of the planets, KMT-2021-BLG-1105Lb, is blended with a relatively bright ( I , V ) ∼ (18.9, 21.6) star that may be the host. This could be verified immediately by high-resolution imaging. If so, the host is an early G dwarf, and the planet could be characterized by radial velocity observations on 30 m class telescopes. 
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  8. Abstract

    We report on the discovery and analysis of the planetary microlensing event OGLE-2019-BLG-1180 with a planet-to-star mass ratioq∼ 0.003. The event OGLE-2019-BLG-1180 has unambiguous cusp-passing and caustic-crossing anomalies, which were caused by a wide planetary caustic withs≃ 2, wheresis the star–planet separation in units of the angular Einstein radiusθE. Thanks to well-covered anomalies by the Korea Micorolensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), we measure both the angular Einstein radius and the microlens parallax in spite of a relatively short event timescale oftE= 28 days. However, because of a weak constraint on the parallax, we conduct a Bayesian analysis to estimate the physical lens parameters. We find that the lens system is a super-Jupiter-mass planet ofMp=1.750.51+0.53MJorbiting a late-type star ofMh=0.550.26+0.27Mat a distanceDL=6.11.3+0.9kpc. The projected star–planet separation isa=5.191.23+0.90au, which means that the planet orbits at about four times the snow line of the host star. Considering the relative lens–source proper motion ofμrel= 6 mas yr−1, the lens will be separated from the source by 60 mas in 2029. At that time one can measure the lens flux from adaptive optics imaging of Keck or a next-generation 30 m class telescope. OGLE-2019-BLG-1180Lb represents a growing population of wide-orbit planets detected by KMTNet, so we also present a general investigation into prospects for further expanding the sample of such planets.

     
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  9. Abstract Stellar population models produce radiation fields that ionize oxygen up to O +2 , defining the limit of standard H ii region models (<54.9 eV). Yet, some extreme emission-line galaxies, or EELGs, have surprisingly strong emission originating from much higher ionization potentials. We present UV HST/COS and optical LBT/MODS spectra of two nearby EELGs that have very high-ionization emission lines (e.g., He ii λλ 1640,4686 C iv λλ 1548,1550, [Fe v ] λ 4227, [Ar iv ] λλ 4711,4740). We define a four-zone ionization model that is augmented by a very high-ionization zone, as characterized by He +2 (>54.4 eV). The four-zone model has little to no effect on the measured total nebular abundances, but does change the interpretation of other EELG properties: we measure steeper central ionization gradients; higher volume-averaged ionization parameters; and higher central T e , n e , and log U values. Traditional three-zone estimates of the ionization parameter can underestimate the average log U by up to 0.5 dex. Additionally, we find a model-independent dichotomy in the abundance patterns, where the α /H abundances are consistent but N/H, C/H, and Fe/H are relatively deficient, suggesting these EELGs are α /Fe-enriched by more than three times. However, there still is a high-energy ionizing photon production problem (HEIP 3 ). Even for such α /Fe enrichment and very high log U s, photoionization models cannot reproduce the very high-ionization emission lines observed in EELGs. 
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  10. ABSTRACT

    In this work, we update and develop algorithms for KMTNet tender-love care (TLC) photometry in order to create a new, mostly automated, TLC pipeline. We then start a project to systematically apply the new TLC pipeline to the historic KMTNet microlensing events, and search for buried planetary signals. We report the discovery of such a planet candidate in the microlensing event MOA-2019-BLG-421/KMT-2019-BLG-2991. The anomalous signal can be explained by either a planet around the lens star or the orbital motion of the source star. For the planetary interpretation, despite many degenerate solutions, the planet is most likely to be a Jovian planet orbiting an M or K dwarf, which is a typical microlensing planet. The discovery proves that the project can indeed increase the sensitivity of historic events and find previously undiscovered signals.

     
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