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  1. Abstract

    The dispersion in chemical abundances provides a very strong constraint on the processes that drive the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Due to its proximity, the spiral galaxy M33 has been the focus of numerous chemical abundance surveys to study the chemical enrichment and dispersion in abundances over large spatial scales. The CHemical Abundances Of Spirals project has observed ∼100 Hiiregions in M33 with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), producing the largest homogeneous sample of electron temperatures (Te) and direct abundances in this galaxy. Our LBT observations produce a robust oxygen abundance gradient of −0.037 ± 0.007 dex kpc−1and indicate a relatively small (0.043 ± 0.015 dex) intrinsic dispersion in oxygen abundance relative to this gradient. The dispersions in N/H and N/O are similarly small, and the abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar relative to O are consistent with the solar ratio as expected forα-process orα-process-dependent elements. Taken together, the ISM in M33 is chemically well-mixed and homogeneously enriched from inside out, with no evidence of significant abundance variations at a given radius in the galaxy. Our results are compared to those of the numerous studies in the literature, and we discuss possible contaminating sources that can inflate abundancemore »dispersion measurements. Importantly, if abundances are derived from a singleTemeasurement andTeTerelationships are relied on for inferring the temperature in the unmeasured ionization zone, this can lead to systematic biases that increase the measured dispersion up to 0.11 dex.

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  2. Aims. The light curve of the microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-0240 exhibits a short-lasting anomaly with complex features near the peak at the 0.1 mag level from a single-lens single-source model. We conducted modeling of the lensing light curve under various interpretations to reveal the nature of the anomaly. Methods. It is found that the anomaly cannot be explained with the usual model based on a binary-lens (2L1S) or a binary-source (1L2S) interpretation. However, a 2L1S model with a planet companion can describe part of the anomaly, suggesting that the anomaly may be deformed by a tertiary lens component or a close companion to the source. From the additional modeling, we find that all the features of the anomaly can be explained with either a triple-lens (3L1S) model or a binary-lens binary-source (2L2S) model. However, it is difficult to validate the 2L2S model because the light curve does not exhibit signatures induced by the source orbital motion and the ellipsoidal variations expected by the close separation between the source stars according to the model. We, therefore, conclude that the two interpretations cannot be distinguished with the available data, and either can be correct. Results. According to the 3L1S solution, the lens ismore »a planetary system with two sub-Jovian-mass planets in which the planets have masses of 0.32–0.47 M J and 0.44–0.93 M J , and they orbit an M dwarf host. According to the 2L2S solution, on the other hand, the lens is a single planet system with a mass of ~0.21 M J orbiting a late K-dwarf host, and the source is a binary composed of a primary of a subgiant or a turnoff star and a secondary of a late G dwarf. The distance to the planetary system varies depending on the solution: ~7.0 kpc according to the 3L1S solution and ~6.6 kpc according to the 2L2S solution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Stellar population models produce radiation fields that ionize oxygen up to O +2 , defining the limit of standard H ii region models (<54.9 eV). Yet, some extreme emission-line galaxies, or EELGs, have surprisingly strong emission originating from much higher ionization potentials. We present UV HST/COS and optical LBT/MODS spectra of two nearby EELGs that have very high-ionization emission lines (e.g., He ii λλ 1640,4686 C iv λλ 1548,1550, [Fe v ] λ 4227, [Ar iv ] λλ 4711,4740). We define a four-zone ionization model that is augmented by a very high-ionization zone, as characterized by He +2 (>54.4 eV). The four-zone model has little to no effect on the measured total nebular abundances, but does change the interpretation of other EELG properties: we measure steeper central ionization gradients; higher volume-averaged ionization parameters; and higher central T e , n e , and log U values. Traditional three-zone estimates of the ionization parameter can underestimate the average log U by up to 0.5 dex. Additionally, we find a model-independent dichotomy in the abundance patterns, where the α /H abundances are consistent but N/H, C/H, and Fe/H are relatively deficient, suggesting these EELGs are α /Fe-enriched by more than threemore »times. However, there still is a high-energy ionizing photon production problem (HEIP 3 ). Even for such α /Fe enrichment and very high log U s, photoionization models cannot reproduce the very high-ionization emission lines observed in EELGs.« less
  4. Aims. The light curve of the microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-1898 exhibits a short-term central anomaly with double-bump features that cannot be explained by the usual binary-lens or binary-source interpretations. With the aim of interpreting the anomaly, we analyze the lensing light curve under various sophisticated models. Methods. We find that the anomaly is explained by a model, in which both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S model). For this interpretation, the lens is a planetary system with a planet/host mass ratio of q ~ 1.5 × 10 −3 , and the source is a binary composed of a turn off or a subgiant star and a mid K dwarf. The double-bump feature of the anomaly can also be depicted by a triple-lens model (3L1S model), in which the lens is a planetary system containing two planets. Among the two interpretations, the 2L2S model is favored over the 3L1S model not only because it yields a better fit to the data, by ∆ χ 2 = [14.3−18.5], but also the Einstein radii derived independently from the two stars of the binary source result in consistent values. According to the 2L2S interpretation, KMT-2021-BLG-1898 is the third planetary lensing event occurring on amore »binary stellar system, following MOA-2010-BLG-117 and KMT-2018-BLG-1743. Results. Under the 2L2S interpretation, we identify two solutions resulting from the close-wide degeneracy in determining the planet-host separation. From a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the planet has a mass of ~0.7−0.8 M J , and it orbits an early M dwarf host with a mass of ~0.5 M ⊙ . The projected planet-host separation is ~1.9 AU and ~3.0 AU according to the close and wide solutions, respectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  5. ABSTRACT

    We re-examine the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy AGC 198691 using a high quality spectrum obtained by the LBT’s MODS instrument. Previous spectral observations obtained from KOSMOS on the Mayall 4-m and the Blue channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5-m telescope did not allow for the determination of sulfur, argon, or helium abundances. We report an updated and full chemical abundance analysis for AGC 198691, including confirmation of the extremely low “direct” oxygen abundance with a value of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.06 ± 0.03. AGC 198691’s low metallicity potentially makes it a high value target for helping determine the primordial helium abundance (Yp). Though complicated by a Na i night sky line partially overlaying the He i λ5876 emission line, the LBT/MODS spectrum proved adequate for determining AGC 198691’s helium abundance. We employ the recently expanded and improved model of Aver et al., incorporating higher Balmer and Paschen lines, augmented by the observation of the infrared helium emission line He i λ10830 obtained by Hsyu et al. Applying our full model produced a reliable helium abundance determination, consistent with the expectation for its metallicity. Although this is the lowest metallicity object with a detailed helium abundance, unfortunately, due to its faintness [EW(Hβ) < 100 Å] and the compromised He imore »λ5876, the resultant uncertainty on the helium abundance is too large to allow a significant improvement on the measurement of Yp.

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  7. ABSTRACT We report the complete statistical planetary sample from the prime fields (Γ ≥ 2 h−1) of the 2019 Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) microlensing survey. We develop the optimized KMTNet AnomalyFinder algorithm and apply it to the 2019 KMTNet prime fields. We find a total of 13 homogeneously selected planets and report the analysis of three planetary events, KMT-2019-BLG-(1042,1552,2974). The planet–host mass ratios, q, for the three planetary events are 6.34 × 10−4, 4.89 × 10−3, and 6.18 × 10−4, respectively. A Bayesian analysis indicates the three planets are all cold giant planets beyond the snow line of their host stars. The 13 planets are basically uniform in log q over the range −5.0 < log q < −1.5. This result suggests that the planets below qbreak = 1.7 × 10−4 proposed by the MOA-II survey may be more common than previously believed. This work is an early component of a large project to determine the KMTNet mass-ratio function, and the whole sample of 2016–2019 KMTNet events should contain about 120 planets.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2023
  8. Abstract

    We present the analysis of three more planets from the KMTNet 2021 microlensing season. KMT-2021-BLG-0119Lb is a ∼6MJupplanet orbiting an early M dwarf or a K dwarf, KMT-2021-BLG-0192Lb is a ∼2MNepplanet orbiting an M dwarf, and KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is a ∼1.25MNepplanet orbiting a very-low-mass M dwarf or a brown dwarf. These by-eye planet detections provide an important comparison sample to the sample selected with the AnomalyFinder algorithm, and in particular, KMT-2021-BLG-2294 is a case of a planet detected by eye but not by algorithm. KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is part of a population of microlensing planets around very-low-mass host stars that spans the full range of planet masses, in contrast to the planet population at ≲0.1 au, which shows a strong preference for small planets.

  9. Aims. We reexamine high-magnification microlensing events in the previous data collected by the KMTNet survey with the aim of finding planetary signals that were not noticed before. In this work, we report the planetary system KMT-2018-BLG-1988L, which was found from this investigation. Methods. The planetary signal appears as a deviation with ≲0.2 mag from a single-lens light curve and lasted for about 6 h. The deviation exhibits a pattern of a dip surrounded by weak bumps on both sides of the dip. The analysis of the lensing light curve indicates that the signal is produced by a low-mass-ratio ( q ~ 4 × 10 −5 ) planetary companion located near the Einstein ring of the host star. Results. The mass of the planet, M planet  = 6.8 −3.5 +4.7  M ⊕ and 5.6 −2.8 +3.8  M ⊕ for the two possible solutions, estimated from the Bayesian analysis indicates that the planet is in the regime of a super-Earth. The host of the planet is a disk star with a mass of M host  = 0.47 −0.25 +0.33  M ⊙ and a distance of D L  = 4.2 −.14 +1.8 kpc. KMT-2018-BLG-1988Lb is the 18th known microlensing planet with a mass below the uppermore »limit of a super-Earth. The fact that 15 out of the 18 known microlensing planets with masses ≲10  M ⊕ were detected in the 5 yr following the full operation of the KMTNet survey indicates that the KMTNet database is an important reservoir of very low-mass planets.« less
  10. Aims. The high-magnification microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-1077 exhibits a subtle and complex anomaly pattern in the region around the peak. We analyze the lensing light curve of the event with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomaly. Methods. We test various models in combination with several interpretations: that the lens is a binary (2L1S), the source is a binary (1L2S), both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S), or the lens is a triple system (3L1S). We search for the best-fit models under the individual interpretations of the lens and source systems. Results. We find that the anomaly cannot be explained by the usual three-body (2L1S and 1L2S) models. The 2L2S model improves the fit compared to the three-body models, but it still leaves noticeable residuals. On the other hand, the 3L1S interpretation yields a model explaining all the major anomalous features in the lensing light curve. According to the 3L1S interpretation, the estimated mass ratios of the lens companions to the primary are ~1.56 × 10 −3 and ~1.75 × 10 −3 , which correspond to ~1.6 and ~1.8 times the Jupiter/Sun mass ratio, respectively, and therefore the lens is a multiplanetary system containing two giant planets. Withmore »the constraints of the event time-scale and angular Einstein radius, it is found that the host of the lens system is a low-mass star of mid-to-late M spectral type with amass of M h = 0.14 −0.07 +0.19 M Θ , and it hosts two gas giant planets with masses of M p1 = 0.22 −0.12 +0.31 M J and M p2 = 0.25 −0.13 +0.35 . The planets lie beyond the snow line of the host with projected separations of a ⊥,p1 = 1.26 −1.08 +1.41 AU and a ⊥,p2 = 0.93 −0.80 +1.05 AU. The planetary system resides in the Galactic bulge at a distance of D L = 8.24 −1.16 +1.02 kpc. The lens of the event is the fifth confirmed multiplanetary system detected by microlensing following OGLE-2006-BLG-109L, OGLE-2012-BLG-0026L, OGLE-2018-BLG-1011L, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0468L.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023