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Integrated omics reveal novel functions and underlying mechanisms of the receptor kinase FERONIA in Arabidopsis thaliana
The receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a versatile regulator of plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and reproduction. To gain new insights into the molecular interplay of these processes and to identify new FER functions, we carried out quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome profiling of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type and fer-4 loss-of-function mutant plants. Gene ontology terms for phytohormone signaling, abiotic stress, and biotic stress were significantly enriched among differentially expressed transcripts, differentially abundant proteins, and/or misphosphorylated proteins, in agreement with the known roles for FER in these processes. Analysis of multiomics data and subsequent experimental evidence revealed previously unknown functions for FER in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation and glucosinolate biosynthesis. FER functions through the transcription factor NAI1 to mediate ER body formation. FER also negatively regulates indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, partially through NAI1. Furthermore, we found that a group of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced transcription factors is hypophosphorylated in the fer-4 mutant and demonstrated that FER acts through the transcription factor ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) to negatively regulate the ABA response during cotyledon greening. Our integrated omics study, therefore, reveals novel functions for FER and provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms of FER function.