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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Changes induced by irradiation with 1.1 MeV protons in the transport properties and deep trap spectra of thick (>80 μm) undoped κ-Ga2O3 layers grown on sapphire are reported. Prior to irradiation, the films had a donor concentration of ∼1015 cm−3, with the two dominant donors having ionization energies of 0.25 and 0.15 eV, respectively. The main electron traps were located at Ec−0.7 eV. Deep acceptor spectra measured by capacitance-voltage profiling under illumination showed optical ionization thresholds near 2, 2.8, and 3.4 eV. The diffusion length of nonequilibrium charge carriers for ɛ-Ga2O3 was 70 ± 5 nm prior to irradiation. After irradiation with 1.1 MeV protons to a fluence of 1014 cm−2, there was total depletion of mobile charge carriers in the top 4.5 μm of the film, close to the estimated proton range. The carrier removal rate was 10–20 cm−1, a factor of 5–10 lower than in β-Ga2O3, while the concentration of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap and the diffusion length showed no significant change. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Theκ-Ga2O3polytype is attracting attention because of its high spontaneous electric polarization, which exceeds that of III-Nitrides. However, little is known of its transport and photoconductive properties. The electron beam induced current gain effect in Schottky barriers prepared on thick films ofκ-Ga2O3has been studied. It is shown that the gain originates in the depletion region of the Schottky barrier. It is demonstrated that the induced current gain takes place only in some local regions, several which increases with applied bias. Such unusual behavior can be explained by an inhomogeneous distribution of hole traps or by a formation of conductive channels under applied bias.

     
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  4. Deep centers and their influence on photocurrent spectra and transients were studied for interdigitated photoresistors on α -Ga 2 O 3 undoped semi-insulating films grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire. Characterization involving current-voltage measurements in the dark and with monochromatic illumination with photons with energies from 1.35 eV to 4.9 eV, Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC), Photoinduced Current Transients Spectroscopy (PICTS) showed the Fermi level in the dark was pinned at E c −0.8 eV, with other prominent centers being deep acceptors with optical thresholds near 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and deep traps with levels at E c −0.5 eV, E c −0.6 eV. Measurements of photocurrent transients produced by illumination with photon energies 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) imaging point to the high sensitivity and external quantum efficiency values being due to hole trapping enhancing the lifetime of electrons and inherently linked with the long photocurrent transients. The photocurrent transients are stretched exponents, indicating the strong contribution of the presence of centers with barriers for electron capture and/or of potential fluctuations. 
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  5. Abstract Films of α-Ga2O3 (Sn) grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire with starting net donor densities in the range 5×1015- 8.4×1019 cm-3 were irradiated at room temperature with 1.1 MeV protons to fluences from 1013 -1016 cm-2. For the lowest doped samples, the carrier removal rate was ~35 cm-1 at 1014 cm-2 and ~1.3 cm-1 for 1015 cm-2 proton fluence. The observed removal rate could be accounted for by the introduction of deep acceptors with optical ionization energies of 2 eV, 2.8 eV and 3.1 eV. For doped samples doped at 4x1018 cm-3, the initial electron removal rate was 5×103 cm-1 for 1015 cm-2 proton fluence and ~300 cm-1 for 1016 cm-2 proton fluence. The same deep acceptors were observed in photocapacitance spectra, but their introduction rate was orders of magnitude lower than the carrier removal rate. For the heaviest doped samples, an electron removal rate could be measured only after irradiation with the highest proton fluence of 1016 cm-2 and was close to that measured for the 4×1018 cm-3 sample after exposure to the same fluence. Possible reasons for the observed behavior are discussed and radiation tolerances of lightly doped α-Ga2O3 films is higher than for similarly doped β-Ga2O3 layers.  
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2024
  6. The electric field dependence of emission rate of the deep traps with level near Ec−0.6 eV, so-called E1 traps, was studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of applied voltages. The traps were initially introduced by 900 °C ampoule annealing in molecular hydrogen. The results indicate the activation energy of the centers and the ratio of high-field to low-field electron emission rates at a fixed temperature scale as the square root of electric field, suggesting that the centers behave as deep donors. The possible microscopic nature of the centers in view of recent theoretical calculations is discussed. The most likely candidates for the E1 centers are SiGa1–H or SnGa2–H complexes.

     
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  7. Ion beam fabrication of metastable polymorphs of Ga2O3, assisted by the controllable accumulation of the disorder in the lattice, is an interesting alternative to conventional deposition techniques. However, the adjustability of the electrical properties in such films is unexplored. In this work, we investigated two strategies for tuning the electron concentration in the ion beam created metastable κ-polymorph: adding silicon donors by ion implantation and adding hydrogen via plasma treatments. Importantly, all heat treatments were limited to ≤600 °C, set by the thermal stability of the ion beam fabricated polymorph. Under these conditions, silicon doping did not change the high resistive state caused by the iron acceptors in the initial wafer and residual defects accumulated upon the implants. Conversely, treating samples in a hydrogen plasma converted the ion beam fabricated κ-polymorph to n-type, with a net donor density in the low 1012 cm−3 range and dominating deep traps near 0.6 eV below the conduction band. The mechanism explaining this n-type conductivity change may be due to hydrogen forming shallow donor complexes with gallium vacancies and/or possibly passivating a fraction of the iron acceptors responsible for the high resistivity in the initial wafers.

     
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  8. Two-inch diameter α -Ga 2 O 3 films with thickness ∼4 μ m were grown on basal plane sapphire by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) and doped with Sn in the top ∼1 μ m from the surface. These films were characterized with High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging in the Secondary Electron (SE) and Micro-cathodoluminescence (MCL) modes, contactless sheet resistivity mapping, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, admittance spectra, and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. The edge and screw dislocations densities estimated from HRXRD data were respectively 7.4 × 10 9 cm −2 and 1.5 × 10 7 cm −2 , while the films had a smooth surface with a low density (∼10 3 cm −2 ) of circular openings with diameters between 10 and 100 μ m. The sheet resistivity of the films varied over the entire 2-inch diameter from 200 to 500 Ω square −1 . The net donor concentration was ∼10 18 cm −3 near the surface and increased to ∼4 × 10 18 cm −3 deeper inside the sample. The deep traps observed in admittance and DLTS spectra had levels at E c −0.25 eV and E c −0.35 eV, with concentration ∼10 15 cm −3 and E c −1 eV with concentration ∼10 16 cm −3 . 
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  9. Thick (23 µm) films of κ-Ga 2 O 3 were grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on GaN/sapphire templates at 630 °C. X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of single-phase κ-Ga 2 O 3 with half-widths of the high-resolution x-ray diffraction (004), (006), and (008) symmetric reflections of 4.5 arc min and asymmetric (027) reflection of 14 arc min. Orthorhombic κ-Ga 2 O 3 polymorph formation was confirmed from analysis of the Kikuchi diffraction pattern in electron backscattering diffraction. Secondary electron imaging indicated a reasonably flat surface morphology with a few (area density ∼10 3  cm −2 ) approximately circular (diameter ∼50–100 µm) uncoalesced regions, containing κ-Ga 2 O 3 columns with in-plane dimensions and a height of about 10 µm. Micro-cathodoluminescence (MCL) spectra showed a wide 2–3.5 eV band that could be deconvoluted into narrower bands peaked at 2.59, 2.66, 2.86, and 3.12 eV. Ni Schottky diodes prepared on the films showed good rectification but a high series resistance. The films had a thin near-surface region dominated by E c − 0.7 eV deep centers and a deeper region (∼2 µm from the surface) dominated by shallow donors with concentrations of ≤10 16  cm −3 . Photocurrent and photocapacitance spectra showed the presence of deep compensating acceptors with optical ionization energies of ∼1.35 and 2.3 eV, the latter being close to the energy of one of the MCL bands. Deep level transient spectroscopy revealed deep traps with energies near 0.3, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 1 eV from the conduction band edge. The results show the potential of HVPE to grow very thick κ-Ga 2 O 3 on GaN/sapphire templates. 
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