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  1. Abstract The positron, the antiparticle of the electron, predicted by Dirac in 1931 and discovered by Anderson in 1933, plays a key role in many scientific and everyday endeavours. Notably, the positron is a constituent of antihydrogen, the only long-lived neutral antimatter bound state that can currently be synthesized at low energy, presenting a prominent system for testing fundamental symmetries with high precision. Here, we report on the use of laser cooled Be + ions to sympathetically cool a large and dense plasma of positrons to directly measured temperatures below 7 K in a Penning trap for antihydrogen synthesis. This willmore »likely herald a significant increase in the amount of antihydrogen available for experimentation, thus facilitating further improvements in studies of fundamental symmetries.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Abstract The photon—the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field—is massless but carries momentum. A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision 1 . Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force 2,3 , known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago 4,5 . It revolutionized atomic physics over the following decades 6–8 , and it is now a workhorse in many fields, including studies on quantum degenerate gases, quantum information, atomic clocks and tests of fundamental physics. However, this technique has not yet been applied to antimatter. Heremore »we demonstrate laser cooling of antihydrogen 9 , the antimatter atom consisting of an antiproton and a positron. By exciting the 1S–2P transition in antihydrogen with pulsed, narrow-linewidth, Lyman-α laser radiation 10,11 , we Doppler-cool a sample of magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Although we apply laser cooling in only one dimension, the trap couples the longitudinal and transverse motions of the anti-atoms, leading to cooling in all three dimensions. We observe a reduction in the median transverse energy by more than an order of magnitude—with a substantial fraction of the anti-atoms attaining submicroelectronvolt transverse kinetic energies. We also report the observation of the laser-driven 1S–2S transition in samples of laser-cooled antihydrogen atoms. The observed spectral line is approximately four times narrower than that obtained without laser cooling. The demonstration of laser cooling and its immediate application has far-reaching implications for antimatter studies. A more localized, denser and colder sample of antihydrogen will drastically improve spectroscopic 11–13 and gravitational 14 studies of antihydrogen in ongoing experiments. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to manipulate the motion of antimatter atoms by laser light will potentially provide ground-breaking opportunities for future experiments, such as anti-atomic fountains, anti-atom interferometry and the creation of antimatter molecules.« less
  3. Abstract. This work measured $ \mathrm{d}\sigma/\mathrm{d}\Omega$ d σ / d Ω for neutral kaon photoproduction reactions from threshold up to a c.m. energy of 1855MeV, focussing specifically on the $ \gamma p\rightarrow K^0\Sigma^+$ γ p → K 0 Σ + , $ \gamma n\rightarrow K^0\Lambda$ γ n → K 0 Λ , and $ \gamma n\rightarrow K^0 \Sigma^0$ γ n → K 0 Σ 0 reactions. Our results for $ \gamma n\rightarrow K^0 \Sigma^0$ γ n → K 0 Σ 0 are the first-ever measurements for that reaction. These data will provide insight into the properties of $ N^{\ast}$ Nmore »* resonances and, in particular, will lead to an improved knowledge about those states that couple only weakly to the $ \pi N$ π N channel. Integrated cross sections were extracted by fitting the differential cross sections for each reaction as a series of Legendre polynomials and our results are compared with prior experimental results and theoretical predictions.« less