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Creators/Authors contains: "Pradhan, Sangram K."

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  1. Abstract

    The drawbacks of common anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs), such as the high voltage plateau of Li4Ti5O12(1.55 V vs. Li/Li+) and the moderate capacity of graphite (372 mAh-g-1), have established a need for better materials. Conversion materials, and in particular iron oxide and CaFe2O4(CFO), have amassed recent attention as potential anode replacements. In this study, we evaluate the material and electrochemical effects of the solution combustion synthesis (SCS) of porous CFO across novel fuel-to-oxidizer ratios and calcination temperatures. We demonstrate that nearly doubling the amount of fuel used during synthesis increases capacities between 120 and 150% at high current densities (~ 1000 mA-g-1) and across 500 additional charging-discharging cycles, an effect brought on in part by enhanced compositional purity in these samples. However, in order to ensure long-term cyclic stability, it is necessary to also calcine porous CFO to 900 °C to enhance crystallite size, particle size and spacing, and compositional purity.

  2. Abstract We have grown arrays of silver nanowires in pores of anodic alumina membranes (metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion at λ  ≥ 615 nm), spin coated them with the dye-doped polymer (HITC:PMMA), and studied the rates of radiative and nonradiative relaxation as well as the concentration quenching (Förster energy transfer to acceptors). The results were compared to those obtained on top of planar Ag films and glass (control samples). The strong spatial inhomogeneity of emission kinetics recorded in different spots across the sample and strong inhibition of the concentration quenching in arrays of Ag nanowires are among the most significant findings of this study.
  3. Abstract

    Combining two materials in a nanoscale level can create a composite with new functionalities and improvements in their physical and chemical properties. Here we present a high-throughput approach to produce a nanocomposite consisting of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor oxide nanostructures. Volmer-Weber growth, though unfavorable for thin films, promotes nucleation of dense and isolated metal nanoparticles on crystalline oxide nanostructures, resulting in new material properties. We demonstrate such a growth of Au nanoparticles on SnO2nanostructures and a remarkable sensitivity of the nanocomposite for detecting traces of analytes in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Au nanoparticles with tunable size enable us to modify surface wettability and convert hydrophilic oxide surfaces into super-hydrophobic with contact angles over 150°. We also find that charge injection through electron beam exposure shows the same effect as photo-induced charge separation, providing an extra Raman enhancement up to an order of magnitude.

  4. Abstract

    Large area highly crystalline MoS2and WS2thin films were successfully grown on different substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. Structural, morphological and thermoelectric transport properties of MoS2,and WS2thin films have been investigated systematically to fabricate high-efficient thermal energy harvesting devices. X-ray diffraction data revealed that crystallites of MoS2and WS2films are highly oriented in 002 plane with uniform grain size distribution confirmed through atomic force microscopy study. Surface roughness increases with substrate temperature and it plays a big role in electron and phonon scattering. Interestingly, MoS2films also display low thermal conductivity at room temperature and strongly favors achievement of higher thermoelectric figure of merit value of up to 1.98. Raman spectroscopy data shows two distinct MoS2vibrational modes at 380 cm−1for E12gand 410 cm−1for A1g. Thermoelectric transport studies further demonstrated that MoS2films show p-type thermoelectric characteristics, while WS2is an n-type material. We demonstrated high efficient pn-junction thermoelectric generator device for waste heat recovery and cooling applications.