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  1. Externally heated diamond anvil cells provide a stable and uniform thermal environment, making them a versatile device to simultaneously generate high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in various fields of research, such as condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, and geosciences. The present study features the Externally Heated Diamond ANvil Cell Experimentation (EH-DANCE) system, a versatile configuration consisting of a diamond anvil cell with a customized microheater for stable resistive heating, bidirectional pressure control facilitated by compression and decompression membranes, and a water-cooled enclosure suitable for vacuum and controlled atmospheres. This integrated system excels with its precise control of both pressure and temperature for mineral and materials science research under extreme conditions. We showcase the capabilities of the system through its successful application in the investigation of the melting temperature and thermal equation of state of high-pressure ice-VII at temperatures up to 1400 K. The system was also used to measure the elastic properties of solid ice-VII and liquid H2O using Brillouin scattering and Raman spectra of carbonates using Raman spectroscopy, highlighting the potential of the EH-DANCE system in high-pressure research.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract The post-stishovite transition is a classic pseudo-proper typed ferroelastic transition with a symmetry-breaking spontaneous strain. This transition has been studied using high-pressure spontaneous strains, optic modes, and elastic moduli (Cij) based on the Landau modeling, but its atomistic information and structural distortion remain poorly understood. Here we have conducted synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements on stishovite crystals up to 75.3 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell. Analysis of the data reveals atomic positions, bond lengths, bond angles, and variations of SiO6 octahedra across the transition at high pressure. Our results show that the O coordinates split at ~51.4 GPa, where the apical and equatorial Si-O bond lengths cross over, the SiO6 octahedral distortion vanishes, and the SiO6 octahedra start to rotate about the c axis. Moreover, distortion mode analysis shows that an in-plane stretching distortion (GM1+ mode) occurs in the stishovite structure at high pressure while a rotational distortion (GM2+ mode) becomes dominant in the post-stishovite structure. These results are used to correlate with elastic moduli and Landau parameters (symmetry-breaking strain e1–e2 and order parameter Q) to provide atomistic insight into the ferroelastic transition. When the bond lengths of two Si-O bonds are equal due to the contribution from the GM1+ stretching mode, C11 converges with C12, and the shear wave VS1[110] polarizing along [110] and propagating along [110] vanishes. Values of e1–e2 and Q are proportional to the SiO6 rotation angle from the occurrence of the GM1+ rotational mode in the post-stishovite structure. Our results on the pseudo-proper type transition are also compared with that for the proper type in albite and improper type in CaSiO3 perovskite. The symmetry-breaking strain, in all these types of transitions, arises as the primary effect from the structural angle (such as SiO6 rotation or lattice constant angle) and its relevant distortion mode in the low-symmetry ferroelastic phase. 
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  3. Abstract In this study, we have investigated the crystal structure and equation of state of tetragonal CaSiO3-perovskite up to 200 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond-anvil cells. X-ray diffraction patterns of the quenched CaSiO3-perovskite above 148 GPa clearly show that 200, 211, and 220 peaks of the cubic phase split into 004+220, 204+312, and 224+400 peak pairs, respectively, in the tetragonal structure, and their calculated full-width at half maximum (FWHM) exhibits a substantial increase with pressure. The distribution of diffraction peaks suggests that the tetragonal CaSiO3-perovskite most likely has an I4/mcm space group at 300 K between 148 and 199 GPa, although other possibilities might still exist. Using the Birch-Murnaghan equations, we have determined the equation of state of tetragonal CaSiO3-perovskite, yielding the bulk modulus K0T = 227(21) GPa with the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, K0T′ = 4.0(3). Modeled sound velocities at 580 K and around 50 GPa using our results and literature values show the difference in the compressional (VP) and shear-wave velocity (VS) between the tetragonal and cubic phases to be 5.3 and 6.7%, respectively. At ~110 GPa and 1000 K, this phase transition leads to a 4.3 and 9.1% jump in VP and VS, respectively. Since the addition of Ti can elevate the transition temperature, the transition from the tetragonal to cubic phase may have a seismic signature compatible with the observed mid-lower mantle discontinuity around the cold subduction slabs, which needs to be explored in future studies. 
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