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  1. Mobile augmented reality (AR) has the potential to enable immersive, natural interactions between humans and cyber-physical systems. In particular markerless AR, by not relying on fiducial markers or predefined images, provides great convenience and flexibility for users. However, unwanted virtual object movement frequently occurs in markerless smartphone AR due to inaccurate scene understanding, and resulting errors in device pose tracking. We examine the factors which may affect virtual object stability, design experiments to measure it, and conduct systematic quantitative characterizations across six different user actions and five different smartphone configurations. Our study demonstrates noticeable instances of spatial instability in virtualmore »objects in all but the simplest settings (with position errors of greater than 10cm even on the best-performing smartphones), and underscores the need for further enhancements to pose tracking algorithms for smartphone-based markerless AR.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2023
  2. Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) demands realistic rendering of virtual content that seamlessly blends into the physical environment. For this reason, AR headsets and recent smartphones are increasingly equipped with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras to acquire depth maps of a scene in real-time. ToF cameras are cheap and fast, however, they suffer from several issues that affect the quality of depth data, ultimately hampering their use for mobile AR. Among them, scale errors of virtual objects - appearing much bigger or smaller than what they should be - are particularly noticeable and unpleasant. This article specifically addresses these challenges by proposing InDepth,more »a real-time depth inpainting system based on edge computing. InDepth employs a novel deep neural network (DNN) architecture to improve the accuracy of depth maps obtained from ToF cameras. The DNN fills holes and corrects artifacts in the depth maps with high accuracy and eight times lower inference time than the state of the art. An extensive performance evaluation in real settings shows that InDepth reduces the mean absolute error by a factor of four with respect to ARCore DepthLab. Finally, a user study reveals that InDepth is effective in rendering correctly-scaled virtual objects, outperforming DepthLab.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023