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  1. In this article, real-time jamming detection against unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is proposed via the integration of a software-defined radio (SDR) with an on-board Raspberry Pi processor. The SDR is utilized for capturing and forwarding the radio frequency signals to a receiver module hosted in the processor. This module extracts signal features characterized by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) parameters, energy parameters, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) parameters. Upon feature extraction, the aforementioned module exploits a machine learning (ML) classifier for detecting and classifying four jamming types; namely, barrage, single-tone, successive-pulse, and protocol-aware. The resulting configuration yielded in an overall detectionmore »rate (DR) of 93% and a false alarm rate (FAR) of 1.1%, which are in proximity to their counterparts obtained during the validation stage of the receiver module.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  2. This method for separating coral tissues from algal endosymbiont (Symbiodiniaceae) for stable isotope analysis is modified from previously published methods (Hughes et al. 2010). There are three parts to preparing coral samples for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis: 1) airbrush to remove coral tissue and algal cells from skeleton and store at -80 °C until ready to separate, 2) separate the coral tissue from the algal cells through centrifugation and filtering, and 3) dry and pack separated tissues into tin capsules for analysis in a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This method was modified from Hughes et al. (2010)more »by James Price with the assistance of Alex Smith and Kerri Dobson and with the guidance of Andréa Grottoli at The Ohio State University. dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.bgi7juhn« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Human activities are transforming grassland biomass via changing climate, elemental nutrients, and herbivory. Theory predicts that food-limited herbivores will consume any additional biomass stimulated by nutrient inputs (‘consumer-controlled’). Alternatively, nutrient supply is predicted to increase biomass where herbivores alter community composition or are limited by factors other than food (‘resource-controlled’). Using an experiment replicated in 58 grasslands spanning six continents, we show that nutrient addition and vertebrate herbivore exclusion each caused sustained increases in aboveground live biomass over a decade, but consumer control was weak. However, at sites with high vertebrate grazing intensity or domestic livestock, herbivores consumed themore »additional fertilization-induced biomass, supporting the consumer-controlled prediction. Herbivores most effectively reduced the additional live biomass at sites with low precipitation or high ambient soil nitrogen. Overall, these experimental results suggest that grassland biomass will outstrip wild herbivore control as human activities increase elemental nutrient supply, with widespread consequences for grazing and fire risk.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022