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  1. ABSTRACT

    We present the volumetric rates and luminosity functions (LFs) of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the V-band All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) catalogues spanning discovery dates from UTC 2014 January 26 to UTC 2017 December 29. Our standard sample consists of 404 SNe Ia with $m_{\mathrm{{\it V},peak}} \lt 17\, \mathrm{mag}$ and Galactic latitude |b| > 15°. Our results are both statistically more precise and systematically more robust than previous studies due to the large sample size and high spectroscopic completeness. We make completeness corrections based on both the apparent and absolute magnitudes by simulating the detection of SNe Ia in ASAS-SN light curves. We find a total volumetric rate for all subtypes of $R_{\mathrm{tot}} = 2.28^{+0.20}_{-0.20} \times 10^{4}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$ for $M_{\mathrm{{\it V},peak}} \lt -16.5\, \mathrm{mag}$ ($R_{\mathrm{tot}} = 1.91^{+0.12}_{-0.12} \times 10^{4}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$ for $M_{\mathrm{{\it V},peak}} \lt -17.5\, \mathrm{mag}$) at the median redshift of our sample, zmed = 0.024. This is in agreement (1σ) with the local volumetric rates found by previous studies. We also compile LFs for the entire sample as well as for subtypes of SNe Ia for the first time. The major subtypes with more than one SN include Ia-91bg, Ia-91T, Ia-CSM, and Ia-03fg with total rates of $R_{\mathrm{Ia-91bg}} = 1.4^{+0.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{3}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$, $R_{\mathrm{Ia-91T}} = 8.5^{+1.6}_{-1.7} \times 10^{2}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$, $R_{\mathrm{Ia-CSM}} = 10^{+7}_{-7}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$, and $R_{\mathrm{Ia-03fg}} = 30^{+20}_{-20}\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\, h^{3}_{70}$, respectively. We estimate a mean host extinction of $E(V-r) \approx 0.2\, \mathrm{mag}$ based on the shift between our V band and the Zwicky Transient Facility r-band LFs.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    We report the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae discovery of the tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-23bd (AT 2023clx) in NGC 3799, a LINER galaxy with no evidence of strong active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity over the past decade. With a redshift of z = 0.01107 and a peak ultraviolet (UV)/optical luminosity of (5.4 ± 0.4) × 1042 erg s−1, ASASSN-23bd is the lowest-redshift and least-luminous TDE discovered to date. Spectroscopically, ASASSN-23bd shows H α and He i emission throughout its spectral time series, there are no coronal lines in its near-infrared spectrum, and the UV spectrum shows nitrogen lines without the strong carbon and magnesium lines typically seen for AGN. Fits to the rising ASAS-SN light curve show that ASASSN-23bd started to brighten on MJD 59988$^{+1}_{-1}$, ∼9 d before discovery, with a nearly linear rise in flux, peaking in the g band on MJD $60 \, 000^{+3}_{-3}$. Scaling relations and TDE light curve modelling find a black hole mass of ∼106 M⊙, which is on the lower end of supermassive black hole masses. ASASSN-23bd is a dim X-ray source, with an upper limit of $L_{0.3-10\, \mathrm{keV}} \lt 1.0\times 10^{40}$ erg s−1 from stacking all Swift observations prior to MJD 60061, but with soft (∼0.1 keV) thermal emission with a luminosity of $L_{0.3-2 \, \mathrm{keV}}\sim 4\times 10^{39}$ erg s−1 in XMM-Newton observations on MJD 60095. The rapid (t < 15 d) light curve rise, low UV/optical luminosity, and a luminosity decline over 40 d of ΔL40 ≈ −0.7 dex make ASASSN-23bd one of the dimmest TDEs to date and a member of the growing ‘Low Luminosity and Fast’ class of TDEs.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT Using blazar light curves from the optical All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and the γ-ray Fermi-LAT telescope, we performed the most extensive statistical correlation study between both bands, using a sample of 1180 blazars. This is almost an order of magnitude larger than other recent studies. Blazars represent more than 98 per cent of the AGNs detected by Fermi-LAT and are the brightest γ-ray sources in the extragalactic sky. They are essential for studying the physical properties of astrophysical jets from central black holes. However, their γ-ray flare mechanism is not fully understood. Multiwavelength correlations help constrain the dominant mechanisms of blazar variability. We search for temporal relationships between optical and γ-ray bands. Using a Bayesian Block Decomposition, we detect 1414 optical and 510 γ-ray flares, we find a strong correlation between both bands. Among all the flares, we find 321 correlated flares from 133 blazars, and derive an average rest-frame time delay of only 1.1$_{-8.5}^{+7.1}$ d, with no difference between the flat-spectrum radio quasars, BL Lacertae-like objects or low, intermediate, and high-synchrotron peaked blazar classes. Our time-delay limit rules out the hadronic proton-synchrotron model as the driver for non-orphan flares and suggests a leptonic single-zone model. Limiting our search to well-defined light curves and removing 976 potential but unclear ‘orphan’ flares, we find 191 (13 per cent) and 115 (22 per cent) clear ‘orphan’ optical and γ-ray flares. The presence of ‘orphan’ flares in both bands challenges the standard one-zone blazar flare leptonic model and suggests multizone synchrotron sites or a hadronic model for some blazars. 
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  4. ABSTRACT

    The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is the first optical survey to monitor the entire sky, currently with a cadence of ≲ 24 h down to g ≲ 18.5 mag. ASAS-SN has routinely operated since 2013, collecting ∼ 2 000 to over 7 500 epochs of V- and g-band observations per field to date. This work illustrates the first analysis of ASAS-SN’s newer, deeper, and higher cadence g-band data. From an input source list of ∼55 million isolated sources with g < 18 mag, we identified 1.5 × 106 variable star candidates using a random forest (RF) classifier trained on features derived from Gaia, 2MASS, and AllWISE. Using ASAS-SN g-band light curves, and an updated RF classifier augmented with data from Citizen ASAS-SN, we classified the candidate variables into eight broad variability types. We present a catalogue of ∼116 000 new variable stars with high-classification probabilities, including ∼111 000 periodic variables and ∼5 000 irregular variables. We also recovered ∼263 000 known variable stars.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    Detached eclipsing binaries are a fundamental tool for measuring the physical parameters of stars that are effectively evolving in isolation. Starting from more than 40 000 eclipsing binary candidates identified by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), we use PHOEBE to determine the sum of the fractional radii, the ratio of effective temperatures, the inclinations, and the eccentricities for 35 576 systems. We visually inspect all the light-curve models to verify the model fits and examine the TESS light curves, when available, to select systems with evidence for additional physics, such as spots, mass transfer, and hierarchical triples. We examine the distributions of the eclipsing binary model parameters and the orbital parameters. We identify two groups in the sum of the fractional radii and effective temperature ratio parameter space that may distinguish systems approaching the semidetached limit. Combining Gaia EDR3 with extinction estimates from three-dimensional dust maps, we examine the properties of the systems as a function of their absolute magnitude and evolutionary state. Finally, we present light curves of selected eclipsing binaries that may be of interest for follow-up studies.

     
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  6. Abstract We present the first results from Citizen ASAS-SN, a citizen science project for the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) hosted on the Zooniverse platform. Citizen ASAS-SN utilizes the newer, deeper, higher cadence ASAS-SN g -band data and tasks volunteers to classify periodic variable star candidates based on their phased light curves. We started from 40,640 new variable candidates from an input list of ∼7.4 million stars with δ < −60° and the volunteers identified 10,420 new discoveries which they classified as 4234 pulsating variables, 3132 rotational variables, 2923 eclipsing binaries, and 131 variables flagged as Unknown. They classified known variable stars with an accuracy of 89% for pulsating variables, 81% for eclipsing binaries, and 49% for rotational variables. We examine user performance, agreement between users, and compare the citizen science classifications with our machine learning classifier updated for the g -band light curves. In general, user activity correlates with higher classification accuracy and higher user agreement. We used the user’s “Junk” classifications to develop an effective machine learning classifier to separate real from false variables, and there is a clear path for using this “Junk” training set to significantly improve our primary machine learning classifier. We also illustrate the value of Citizen ASAS-SN for identifying unusual variables with several examples. 
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  7. ABSTRACT The majority of non-merging stellar mass black holes are discovered by observing high energy emission from accretion processes. Here, we pursue the large, but still mostly unstudied population of non-interacting black holes and neutron stars by searching for the tidally induced ellipsoidal variability of their stellar companions. We start from a sample of about 200 000 rotational variables, semiregular variables, and eclipsing binary stars from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae. We use a χ2 ratio test followed by visual inspection to identify 369 candidates for ellipsoidal variability. We also discuss how to combine the amplitude of the variability with mass and radius estimates for observed stars to calculate a minimum companion mass, identifying the most promising candidates for high mass companions. 
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  8. Abstract

    We present the first estimate of the Galactic nova rate based on optical transient surveys covering the entire sky. Using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and Gaia—the only two all-sky surveys to report classical nova candidates—we find 39 confirmed Galactic novae and 7 additional unconfirmed candidates discovered from 2019 to 2021, yielding a nova discovery rate of ≈14 yr−1. Using accurate Galactic stellar mass models and three-dimensional dust maps and incorporating realistic nova light curves, we have built a sophisticated Galactic nova model to estimate the fraction of Galactic novae discovered by these surveys over this time period. The observing capabilities of each survey are distinct: the high cadence of ASAS-SN makes it sensitive to fast novae, while the broad observing filter and high spatial resolution of Gaia make it more sensitive to highly reddened novae across the entire Galactic plane and bulge. Despite these differences, we find that ASAS-SN and Gaia give consistent Galactic nova rates, with a final joint nova rate of 26 ± 5 yr−1. This inferred nova rate is substantially lower than found by many other recent studies. Critically assessing the systematic uncertainties in the Galactic nova rate, we argue that the role of faint, fast-fading novae has likely been overestimated, but that subtle details in the operation of transient alert pipelines can have large, sometimes unappreciated effects on transient recovery efficiency. Our predicted nova rate can be directly tested with forthcoming red/near-infrared transient surveys in the southern hemisphere.

     
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  9. Abstract There is a long-standing discrepancy between the observed Galactic classical nova rate of ∼10 yr −1 and the predicted rate from Galactic models of ∼30–50 yr −1 . One explanation for this discrepancy is that many novae are hidden by interstellar extinction, but the degree to which dust can obscure novae is poorly constrained. We use newly available all-sky three-dimensional dust maps to compare the brightness and spatial distribution of known novae to that predicted from relatively simple models in which novae trace Galactic stellar mass. We find that only half (53%) of the novae are expected to be easily detectable ( g ≲ 15) with current all-sky optical surveys such as the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). This fraction is much lower than previously estimated, showing that dust does substantially affect nova detection in the optical. By comparing complementary survey results from the ASAS-SN, OGLE-IV, and Palomar Gattini IR surveys using our modeling, we find a tentative Galactic nova rate of ∼30 yr −1 , though this could be as high as ∼40 yr −1 , depending on the assumed distribution of novae within the Galaxy. These preliminary estimates will be improved in future work through more sophisticated modeling of nova detection in ASAS-SN and other surveys. 
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  10. ABSTRACT We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectroscopy of ESO 253−G003, which hosts a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko, observed as part of the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field of Nearby Galaxies survey. The MUSE observations reveal that the inner region hosts two AGN separated by $1.4\pm 0.1~\rm {kpc}$ (≈1${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$7). The brighter nucleus has asymmetric broad permitted emission-line profiles and is associated with the archival AGN designation. The fainter nucleus does not have a broad emission-line component but exhibits other AGN characteristics, including $\hbox{$v_{\rm {FWHM}}$} \approx 700~\hbox{km~s$^{-1}$}$ forbidden line emission, $\rm{\log _{10}(\rm{[O\,\small {III}]}/\rm{H\beta})} \approx 1.1$, and high-excitation potential emission lines, such as [Fe vii] λ6086 and He ii λ4686. The host galaxy exhibits a disturbed morphology with large kpc-scale tidal features, potential outflows from both nuclei, and a likely superbubble. A circular relativistic disc model cannot reproduce the asymmetric broad emission-line profiles in the brighter nucleus, but two non-axisymmetric disc models provide good fits to the broad emission-line profiles: an elliptical disc model and a circular disc + spiral arm model. Implications for the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko are discussed. 
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