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  1. The use of a microwell microfluidic device allows separating single cells and tracking single cells data. The measurement of single cell fluorescent intensity trajectories in the microwell device supported a deterministic quorum sensing model identified by ensemble methods for clock phase synchronization. A strong inference framework was used to test the communication mechanism in phase synchronization of quorum sensing versus cell-to-cell contact, and the results lent support for quorum sensing.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 10, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Four inter-related measures of phase are described to study the phase synchronization of cellular oscillators, and computation of these measures is described and illustrated on single cell fluorescence data from the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa. One of these four measures is the phase shift ϕ in a sinusoid of the form x(t) = A(cos(ωt + ϕ), where t is time. The other measures arise by creating a replica of the periodic process x(t) called the Hilbert transform x̃(t), which is 90 degrees out of phase with the original process x(t). The second phase measure is the phase angle FH(t) between the replica x̃(t) and X(t), taking values between -π and π. At extreme values the Hilbert Phase is discontinuous, and a continuous form FC(t) of the Hilbert Phase is used, measuring time on the nonnegative real axis (t). The continuous Hilbert Phase FC(t) is used to define the phase MC(t1,t0) for an experiment beginning at time t0 and ending at time t1. In that phase differences at time t0 are often of ancillary interest, the Hilbert Phase FC(t0) is subtracted from FC(t1). This difference is divided by 2π to obtain the phase MC(t1,t0) in cycles. Both the Hilbert Phasemore »FC(t) and the phase MC(t1,t0) are functions of time and useful in studying when oscillators phase-synchronize in time in signal processing and circadian rhythms in particular. The phase of cellular clocks is fundamentally different from circadian clocks at the macroscopic scale because there is an hourly cycle superimposed on the circadian cycle.« less
  4. The ratio of the electric to magnetic form factors of the proton, μpGEp/GMp, has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering with polarized beam and target up to four-momentum transfer squared Q2=5.66(GeV/c)2 using double spin asymmetry for target spin orientation aligned nearly perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This measurement of μpGEp/GMp agrees with the Q2 dependence of previous recoil polarization data and reconfirms the discrepancy at high Q2 between the Rosenbluth and the polarization-transfer method with a different measurement technique and systematic uncertainties uncorrelated to those of the recoil-polarization measurements. The form factor ratio at Q2=2.06(GeV/c)2 has been measured as μpGEp/GMp=0.720±0.176stat±0.039sys, which is in agreement with an earlier measurement using the polarized target technique at similar kinematics. The form factor ratio at Q2=5.66(GeV/c)2 has been determined as μpGEp/GMp=0.244±0.353stat±0.013sys, which represents the highest Q2 measurement reached using double spin asymmetries with polarized target to date.