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  1. A map of central nervous system organization based on vascular networks or angiomes1 provides a layer of organization distinct from familiar neural networks or connectomes. As a well-established example, the capillary networks of the pituitary portal system enable a route for small amounts of neurochemical signals to reach local targets by traveling along specialized pathways, thereby avoiding dilution in the systemic circulation. Anatomical studies provided the first evidence of this vascular pathway in the brain. Specifically, Popa and Fielding identified a portal pathway linking the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Their anatomical work was based on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the human brain. They also extensively discussed previous studies of this brain region. Based on the available literature and the appearance of India ink in the hypothalamus after it had been injected into the anterior pituitary, they vigorously argued that the direction of blood flow was from the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. There is an increase in usage of smaller cells or femtocells to improve performance and coverage of next-generation heterogeneous wireless networks (HetNets). However, the interference caused by femtocells to neighboring cells is a limiting performance factor in dense HetNets. This interference is being managed via distributed resource allocation methods. However, as the density of the network increases so does the complexity of such resource allocation methods. Yet, unplanned deployment of femtocells requires an adaptable and self-organizing algorithm to make HetNets viable. As such, we propose to use a machine learning approach based on Q-learning to solve the resource allocation problem in such complex networks. By defining each base station as an agent, a cellular network is modeled as a multi-agent network. Subsequently, cooperative Q-learning can be applied as an efficient approach to manage the resources of a multi-agent network. Furthermore, the proposed approach considers the quality of service (QoS) for each user and fairness in the network. In comparison with prior work, the proposed approach can bring more than a four-fold increase in the number of supported femtocells while using cooperative Q-learning to reduce resource allocation overhead.
  3. Abstract The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will undergo major upgrades to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 5–7.5×10 34 cm -2 s -1 . This High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will deliver a total of 3000–4000 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13–14 TeV. To cope with these challenging environmental conditions, the strip tracker of the CMS experiment will be upgraded using modules with two closely-spaced silicon sensors to provide information to include tracking in the Level-1 trigger selection. This paper describes the performance, in a test beam experiment, of the first prototype module based on the final version of the CMS Binary Chip front-end ASIC before and after the module was irradiated with neutrons. Results demonstrate that the prototype module satisfies the requirements, providing efficient tracking information, after being irradiated with a total fluence comparable to the one expected through the lifetime of the experiment.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  6. Abstract The Short Strip ASIC (SSA) is one of the four front-end chips designed for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. Together with the Macro-Pixel ASIC (MPA) it will instrument modules containing a strip and a macro-pixel sensor stacked on top of each other. The SSA provides both full readout of the strip hit information when triggered, and, together with the MPA, correlated clusters called stubs from the two sensors for use by the CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger system. Results from the first prototype module consisting of a sensor and two SSA chips are presented. The prototype module has been characterized at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using a 120 GeV proton beam.
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023