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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 8, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 20, 2024
  3. Abstract Understanding the chemical and physical properties of particles is an important scientific, engineering, and medical issue that is crucial to air quality, human health, and environmental chemistry. Of special interest are aerosol particles floating in the air for both indoor virus transmission and outdoor atmospheric chemistry. The growth of bio- and organic-aerosol particles in the air is intimately correlated with chemical structures and their reactions in the gas phase at aerosol particle surfaces and in-particle phases. However, direct measurements of chemical structures at aerosol particle surfaces in the air are lacking. Here we demonstrate in situ surface-specific vibrational sum frequency scattering (VSFS) to directly identify chemical structures of molecules at aerosol particle surfaces. Furthermore, our setup allows us to simultaneously probe hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) spectra in the particle phase. We examined polarized VSFS spectra of propionic acid at aerosol particle surfaces and in particle bulk. More importantly, the surface adsorption free energy of propionic acid onto aerosol particles was found to be less negative than that at the air/water interface. These results challenge the long-standing hypothesis that molecular behaviors at the air/water interface are the same as those at aerosol particle surfaces. Our approach opens a new avenue inmore »revealing surface compositions and chemical aging in the formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere as well as chemical analysis of indoor and outdoor viral aerosol particles.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    A remarkable distinction between boron and carbon hydrides lies in their extremely different bonding patterns and chemical reactivity, resulting in diverse areas of application. Particularly, carbon, characterized by classical two‐center – two‐electron bonds, gives rise to organic chemistry. In contrast, boron forms numerous exotic and non‐intuitive compounds collectively called non‐classical structures. It is reasonable to anticipate that other elements of Group 13 exhibit their own unusual bonding patterns; however, our knowledge of the hydride chemistry for other elements in Group 13 is much more limited, especially for the heaviest stable element, thallium. In this work, we performed a conformational analysis of Tl2Hxand Tl3Hy(x=0–6, y=0–5) series via Coalescence Kick global minimum search algorithm, DFT, andab initioquantum chemistry methods; we investigated the bonding pattern using the AdNDP algorithm, thermodynamic stability, and stability toward electron detachment. All found global minimum structures are classified as non‐classical structures featuring at least one multi‐center bond.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 2, 2024