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  1. Abstract

    Mesoscale organization of convection is typically not represented in global circulation models, and hence its influence on the global circulation is not accounted for. The heating component of a parameterization that represents the dynamical and physical effects of circulations associated with organized convection, referred to as the multiscale coherent structure parameterization (MCSP), is implemented in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model version 1 (E3SMv1). Numerical simulations are conducted to assess its impact on the simulated climate. Besides E3SMv1 simulations, we performed high‐resolution (2 km) simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to determine the temperature tendencies induced by mesoscale convective systems embedded in deep convection. We tuned the free parameters of the MCSP based on the WRF simulations. MCSP heating enhances Kevin wave spectra in E3SMv1, improves the representation of the Madden‐Julian Oscillation, and reduces precipitation biases over the tropical Pacific.

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  2. Abstract

    We incorporate the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) module in the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2) Community Atmosphere Model Version 6 with interactive chemistry (CAM6‐chem), and couple it with the four mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4). The MOSAIC module is used to simulate the thermodynamics of the gas‐aerosol mass exchange, with a special focus on simulating nitrate aerosol. By comparing against ground and satellite observations, we found that the MOSAIC/MAM4 scheme performs reasonably well in simulating spatiotemporal distributions of aerosols, including nitrate aerosol. We conducted a series of model experiments with and without nitrate aerosols, and examined the radiative effect (RE) associated with nitrate aerosols in 1975, 2000, and 2010, and accessed the radiative forcing (RF) of nitrate aerosols between the present day and pre‐industrial periods. Comparing with the nitrate aerosol RE, we predicted relatively small RF of anthropogenic nitrate aerosol from aerosol‐radiation interactions (RFari: −0.014 W m−2) and large RF from aerosol‐cloud interactions (RFaci: −0.219 W m−2). Regional signatures of nitrate RE/RF are noticeable and important: for instance, very small changes in REariin Europe and USA, but 2.8–3 times increases in REariin India and China from 1975 to 2010, while REaci/RFaciin China is a warming effect due to the competing effect between sulfate and nitrate aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei.

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  3. Abstract

    This paper provides a comprehensive derivation of the total energy equations for the atmospheric components of Earth System Models (ESMs). The assumptions and approximations made in this derivation are motivated and discussed. In particular, it is emphasized that closing the energy budget is conceptually challenging and hard to achieve in practice without resorting to ad hoc fixers. As a concrete example, the energy budget terms are diagnosed in a realistic climate simulation using a global atmosphere model. The largest total energy errors in this example are spurious dynamical core energy dissipation, thermodynamic inconsistencies (e.g., coupling parameterizations with the host model) and missing processes/terms associated with falling precipitation and evaporation (e.g., enthalpy flux between components). The latter two errors are not, in general, reduced by increasing horizontal resolution. They are due to incomplete thermodynamic and dynamic formulations. Future research directions are proposed to reconcile and improve thermodynamics formulations and conservation principles.

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  4. Abstract

    An overview of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) is provided, including a discussion of the challenges encountered during its development and how they were addressed. In addition, an evaluation of a pair of CESM2 long preindustrial control and historical ensemble simulations is presented. These simulations were performed using the nominal 1° horizontal resolution configuration of the coupled model with both the “low‐top” (40 km, with limited chemistry) and “high‐top” (130 km, with comprehensive chemistry) versions of the atmospheric component. CESM2 contains many substantial science and infrastructure improvements and new capabilities since its previous major release, CESM1, resulting in improved historical simulations in comparison to CESM1 and available observations. These include major reductions in low‐latitude precipitation and shortwave cloud forcing biases; better representation of the Madden‐Julian Oscillation; better El Niño‐Southern Oscillation‐related teleconnections; and a global land carbon accumulation trend that agrees well with observationally based estimates. Most tropospheric and surface features of the low‐ and high‐top simulations are very similar to each other, so these improvements are present in both configurations. CESM2 has an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 5.1–5.3 °C, larger than in CESM1, primarily due to a combination of relatively small changes to cloud microphysics and boundary layer parameters. In contrast, CESM2's transient climate response of 1.9–2.0 °C is comparable to that of CESM1. The model outputs from these and many other simulations are available to the research community, and they represent CESM2's contributions to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6.

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