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  1. Abstract

    Classical genetic studies have identified many cases of pleiotropy where mutations in individual genes alter many different phenotypes. Quantitative genetic studies of natural genetic variants frequently examine one or a few traits, limiting their potential to identify pleiotropic effects of natural genetic variants. Widely adopted community association panels have been employed by plant genetics communities to study the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation in a wide range of traits. High-density genetic marker data—18M markers—from 2 partially overlapping maize association panels comprising 1,014 unique genotypes grown in field trials across at least 7 US states and scored for 162 distinct trait data sets enabled the identification of of 2,154 suggestive marker-trait associations and 697 confident associations in the maize genome using a resampling-based genome-wide association strategy. The precision of individual marker-trait associations was estimated to be 3 genes based on a reference set of genes with known phenotypes. Examples were observed of both genetic loci associated with variation in diverse traits (e.g., above-ground and below-ground traits), as well as individual loci associated with the same or similar traits across diverse environments. Many significant signals are located near genes whose functions were previously entirely unknown or estimated purely viamore »functional data on homologs. This study demonstrates the potential of mining community association panel data using new higher-density genetic marker sets combined with resampling-based genome-wide association tests to develop testable hypotheses about gene functions, identify potential pleiotropic effects of natural genetic variants, and study genotype-by-environment interaction.

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  2. A core collapse supernova occurs when exothermic fusion ceases in the core of a massive star, which is typically caused by exhaustion of nuclear fuel. Theory predicts that fusion could be interrupted earlier by merging of the star with a compact binary companion. We report a luminous radio transient, VT J121001+495647, found in the Very Large Array Sky Survey. The radio emission is consistent with supernova ejecta colliding with a dense shell of material, potentially ejected by binary interaction in the centuries before explosion. We associate the supernova with an archival x-ray transient, which implies that a relativistic jet was launched during the explosion. The combination of an early relativistic jet and late-time dense interaction is consistent with expectations for a merger-driven explosion.
  3. ABSTRACT The Deep Synoptic Array 10-dish prototype (DSA-10) is an instrument designed to detect and localize fast radio bursts with arcsecond accuracy in real time. Deployed at Owens Valley Radio Observatory, it consists of ten 4.5-m diameter dishes, equipped with a 250-MHz bandwidth dual polarization receiver, centred at 1.4 GHz. The 20 input signals are digitized and field programmable gate arrays are used to transform the data to the frequency domain and transmit it over ethernet. A series of computer servers buffer both raw data samples and perform a real time search for fast radio bursts on the incoherent sum of all inputs. If a pulse is detected, the raw data surrounding the pulse are written to disc for coherent processing and imaging. The prototype system was operational from 2017 June to 2018 February conducting a drift scan search. Giant pulses from the Crab Pulsar were used to test the detection and imaging pipelines. The 10-dish prototype system was brought online again in 2019 March, and will gradually be replaced with the new DSA-110, a 110-dish system, over the next 2 yr to improve sensitivity and localization accuracy.
  4. Intense, millisecond-duration bursts of radio waves (named fast radio bursts) have been detected from beyond the Milky Way. Their dispersion measures—which are greater than would be expected if they had propagated only through the interstellar medium of the Milky Way—indicate extragalactic origins, and imply contributions from the intergalactic medium and perhaps from other galaxies. Although several theories exist regarding the sources of these fast radio bursts, their intensities, durations and temporal structures suggest coherent emission from highly magnetized plasma. Two of these bursts have been observed to repeat, and one repeater (FRB 121102) has been localized to the largest star-forming region of a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological redshift of 0.19. However, the host galaxies and distances of the hitherto non-repeating fast radio bursts are yet to be identified. Unlike repeating sources, these events must be observed with an interferometer that has sufficient spatial resolution for arcsecond localization at the time of discovery. Here we report the localization of a fast radio burst (FRB 190523) to a few-arcsecond region containing a single massive galaxy at a redshift of 0.66. This galaxy is different from the host of FRB 121102, as it is a thousand times more massive, with a specificmore »star-formation rate (the star-formation rate divided by the mass) a hundred times smaller.« less