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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  4. Abstract We present the analysis and results of the first datasetcollected with the MARS neutron detectordeployed at the Oak Ridge NationalLaboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) for the purpose ofmonitoring and characterizing the beam-related neutron (BRN) backgroundfor the COHERENT collaboration. MARS was positionednext to the COH-CsI coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering detectorin the SNS basement corridor. This is the basement location ofclosest proximity to the SNS target and thus, of highest neutrino flux,but it is also well shielded from the BRN flux by infill concreteand gravel. These data show the detector registered roughly one BRN per day.Using MARS' measured detection efficiency, themore »incomingBRN flux is estimated to be 1.20 ± 0.56 neutrons/m^2/MWhfor neutron energies above ∼3.5 MeV and up to a few tens of MeV.We compare our results with previous BRN measurements in the SNS basement corridorreported by other neutron detectors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Abstract

    Retinal diseases are frequently characterized by the accumulation of excessive scar tissue found throughout the neural retina. However, the pathophysiology of retinal fibrosis remains poorly understood, and the cell types that contribute to the fibrotic response are incompletely defined. Here, we show that myofibroblast differentiation of mural cells contributes directly to retinal fibrosis. Using lineage tracing technology, we demonstrate that after chemical ocular injury, Myh11+ mural cells detach from the retinal microvasculature and differentiate into myofibroblasts to form an epiretinal membrane. Inhibition of TGFβR attenuates Myh11+ retinal mural cell myofibroblast differentiation, and diminishes the subsequent formation of scar tissuemore »on the surface of the retina. We demonstrate retinal fibrosis within a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy resulting from the intravitreal injection of adipose Myh11-derived mesenchymal stem cells, with ensuing myofibroblast differentiation. In this model, inhibiting TGFβR signaling does not significantly alter myofibroblast differentiation and collagen secretion within the retina. This work shows the complexity of retinal fibrosis, where scar formation is regulated both by TGFβR and non-TGFβR dependent processes involving mural cells and derived mesenchymal stem cells. It also offers a cautionary note on the potential deleterious, pro-fibrotic effects of exogenous MSCs once intravitreally injected into clinical patients.

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  6. Abstract With the advance of particle accelerator and detector technologies, the neutrino physics landscape is rapidly expanding. As neutrino oscillation experiments enter the intensity and precision frontiers, neutrino–nucleus interaction measurements are providing crucial input. MINERvA is an experiment at Fermilab dedicated to the study of neutrino–nucleus interactions in the regime of incident neutrino energies from one to few GeV. The experiment recorded neutrino and antineutrino scattering data with the NuMI beamline from 2009 to 2019 using the Low-Energy and Medium-Energy beams that peak at 3GeV and 6GeV, respectively. This article reviews the broad spectrum of interesting nuclear and particle physicsmore »that MINERvA investigations have illuminated. The newfound, detailed knowledge of neutrino interactions with nuclear targets thereby obtained is proving essential to continued progress in the neutrino physics sector.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022