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  1. We develop a virtual prototyping infrastructure for modeling and simulation of automotive systems. We focus on exercising and exploring use cases involving system-level coordination of vehicular electronics, sensors, and software. In current practice, such use cases can only be explored late in the design when all the relevant hardware components are available. Any design change, e.g., for optimization or security or even functional errors found during the exploration, incurs prohibitive cost at that stage. Our solution is a flexible, configurable prototyping platform that enables the user to seamlessly add new system-level use cases. Unlike other related prototyping environments, the focusmore »of our platform is on communication and coordination among different components, not the computation of individual Electronic Control Units. We report on the use of the platform for implementing several realistic usage scenarios on automotive platforms and exploring the effects of their interaction. In particular, we show how to use the platform to develop real-time in-vehicle communication optimizers for different optimization targets.« less
  2. Connected Autonomous Vehicular (CAV) platoon refers to a group of vehicles that coordinate their movements and operate as a single unit. The vehicle at the head acts as the leader of the platoon and determines the course of the vehicles following it. The follower vehicles utilize Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication and automated driving support systems to automatically maintain a small fixed distance between each other. Reliance on V2V communication exposes platoons to several possible malicious attacks which can compromise the safety, stability, and efficiency of the vehicles. We present a novel distributed resiliency architecture, RePLACe for CAV platoon vehicles to defendmore »against adversaries corrupting V2V communication reporting preceding vehicle position. RePLACe is unique in that it can provide real-time defense against a spectrum of communication attacks. RePLACe provides systematic augmentation of a platoon controller architecture with real-time detection and mitigation functionality using machine learning. Unlike computationally intensive cryptographic solutions RePLACe accounts for the limited computation capabilities provided by automotive platforms as well as the real-time requirements of the application. Furthermore, unlike control-theoretic approaches, the same framework works against the broad spectrum of attacks. We also develop a systematic approach for evaluation of resiliency of CAV applications against V2V attacks. We perform extensive experimental evaluation to demonstrate the efficacy of RePLACe.« less
  3. Autonomous vehicle-following systems, including Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), improve safety, efficiency, and string stability for a vehicle (the ego vehicle) following its leading vehicle. The ego vehicle senses or receives information, such as the position, velocity, acceleration, or even intention, of the leading vehicle and controls its own behavior. However, it has been shown that sensors and wireless channels are vulnerable to security attacks, and attackers can modify data sensed from sensors or received from other vehicles. To address this problem, in this paper, we design three types of stealthy attacks on ACC ormore »CACC inputs, where the stealthy attacks can deceive a rule-based detection approach and impede system properties (collision-freeness and vehicle-following distance). We then develop two deep-learning models, a predictor-based model and an encoder-decoder-based model to detect the attacks, where the two models do not need attacker models for training. The experimental results demonstrate the respective strengths of different models and lead to a methodology for the design of learning-based intrusion detection approaches.« less
  4. Abstract We have obtained sensitive dust continuum polarization observations at 850 μ m in the B213 region of Taurus using POL-2 on SCUBA-2 at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the B -fields in STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. These observations allow us to probe magnetic field ( B -field) at high spatial resolution (∼2000 au or ∼0.01 pc at 140 pc) in two protostellar cores (K04166 and K04169) and one prestellar core (Miz-8b) that lie within the B213 filament. Using the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, we estimate the B -field strengths in K04166, K04169, and Miz-8b to be 38more »± 14, 44 ± 16, and 12 ± 5 μ G, respectively. These cores show distinct mean B -field orientations. The B -field in K04166 is well ordered and aligned parallel to the orientations of the core minor axis, outflows, core rotation axis, and large-scale uniform B -field, in accordance with magnetically regulated star formation via ambipolar diffusion taking place in K04166. The B -field in K04169 is found to be ordered but oriented nearly perpendicular to the core minor axis and large-scale B -field and not well correlated with other axes. In contrast, Miz-8b exhibits a disordered B -field that shows no preferred alignment with the core minor axis or large-scale field. We found that only one core, K04166, retains a memory of the large-scale uniform B -field. The other two cores, K04169 and Miz-8b, are decoupled from the large-scale field. Such a complex B -field configuration could be caused by gas inflow onto the filament, even in the presence of a substantial magnetic flux.« less