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  1. Abstract In the emerging era of the internet of things (IoT), ubiquitous sensors continuously collect, consume, store, and communicate a huge volume of information which is becoming increasingly vulnerable to theft and misuse. Modern software cryptosystems require extensive computational infrastructure for implementing ciphering algorithms, making them difficult to be adopted by IoT edge sensors that operate with limited hardware resources and at low energy budgets. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an “all-in-one” 8 × 8 array of robust, low-power, and bio-inspired crypto engines monolithically integrated with IoT edge sensors based on two-dimensional (2D) memtransistors. Each engine comprises five 2D memtransistors to accomplish sensing and encoding functionalities. The ciphered information is shown to be secure from an eavesdropper with finite resources and access to deep neural networks. Our hardware platform consists of a total of 320 fully integrated monolayer MoS 2 -based memtransistors and consumes energy in the range of hundreds of picojoules and offers near-sensor security.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 27, 2023
  3. Abstract Bayesian networks (BNs) find widespread application in many real-world probabilistic problems including diagnostics, forecasting, computer vision, etc. The basic computing primitive for BNs is a stochastic bit (s-bit) generator that can control the probability of obtaining ‘1’ in a binary bit-stream. While silicon-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology can be used for hardware implementation of BNs, the lack of inherent stochasticity makes it area and energy inefficient. On the other hand, memristors and spintronic devices offer inherent stochasticity but lack computing ability beyond simple vector matrix multiplication due to their two-terminal nature and rely on extensive CMOS peripherals for BN implementation, which limits area and energy efficiency. Here, we circumvent these challenges by introducing a hardware platform based on 2D memtransistors. First, we experimentally demonstrate a low-power and compact s-bit generator circuit that exploits cycle-to-cycle fluctuation in the post-programmed conductance state of 2D memtransistors. Next, the s-bit generators are monolithically integrated with 2D memtransistor-based logic gates to implement BNs. Our findings highlight the potential for 2D memtransistor-based integrated circuits for non-von Neumann computing applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Artificial neural networks have demonstrated superiority over traditional computing architectures in tasks such as pattern classification and learning. However, they do not measure uncertainty in predictions, and hence they can make wrong predictions with high confidence, which can be detrimental for many mission-critical applications. In contrast, Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) naturally include such uncertainty in their model, as the weights are represented by probability distributions (e.g. Gaussian distribution). Here we introduce three-terminal memtransistors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials, which can emulate both probabilistic synapses as well as reconfigurable neurons. The cycle-to-cycle variation in the programming of the 2D memtransistor is exploited to achieve Gaussian random number generator-based synapses, whereas 2D memtransistor based integrated circuits are used to obtain neurons with hyperbolic tangent and sigmoid activation functions. Finally, memtransistor-based synapses and neurons are combined in a crossbar array architecture to realize a BNN accelerator for a data classification task.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Reproducible wafer-scale growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process with precise control over their properties is challenging due to a lack of understanding of the growth mechanisms spanning over several length scales and sensitivity of the synthesis to subtle changes in growth conditions. A multiscale computational framework coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Phase-Field (PF), and reactive Molecular Dynamics (MD) was developed – called the CPM model – and experimentally verified. Correlation between theoretical predictions and thorough experimental measurements for a Metal-Organic CVD (MOCVD)-grown WSe2model material revealed the full power of this computational approach. Large-area uniform 2D materials are synthesized via MOCVD, guided by computational analyses. The developed computational framework provides the foundation for guiding the synthesis of wafer-scale 2D materials with precise control over the coverage, morphology, and properties, a critical capability for fabricating electronic, optoelectronic, and quantum computing devices.

  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. AlN thin films are enabling significant progress in modern optoelectronics, power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. The various AlN growth methods and conditions lead to different film microstructures. In this report, phonon scattering mechanisms that impact the cross-plane (κ z ; along the c-axis) and in-plane (κ r ; parallel to the c-plane) thermal conductivities of AlN thin films prepared by various synthesis techniques are investigated. In contrast to bulk single crystal AlN with an isotropic thermal conductivity of ∼330 W/m K, a strong anisotropy in the thermal conductivity is observed in the thin films. The κ z shows a strong film thickness dependence due to phonon-boundary scattering. Electron microscopy reveals the presence of grain boundaries and dislocations that limit the κ r . For instance, oriented films prepared by reactive sputtering possess lateral crystalline grain sizes ranging from 20 to 40 nm that significantly lower the κ r to ∼30 W/m K. Simulation results suggest that the self-heating in AlN film bulk acoustic resonators can significantly impact the power handling capability of RF filters. A device employing an oriented film as the active piezoelectric layer shows an ∼2.5× higher device peak temperature as compared to a device based on an epitaxial film.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 7, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 24, 2023