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  1. Abstract The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will produce particle collisions with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton interactions. These unprecedented conditions will create a combinatorial complexity for charged-particle track reconstruction that demands a computational cost that is expected to surpass the projected computing budget using conventional CPUs. Motivated by this and taking into account the prevalence of heterogeneous computing in cutting-edge High Performance Computing centers, we propose an efficient, fast and highly parallelizable bottom-up approach to track reconstruction for the HL-LHC, along with an associated implementation on GPUs, in the context of the Phase 2 CMS outer tracker. Our algorithm, called Segment Linking (or Line Segment Tracking), takes advantage of localized track stub creation, combining individual stubs to progressively form higher level objects that are subject to kinematical and geometrical requirements compatible with genuine physics tracks. The local nature of the algorithm makes it ideal for parallelization under the Single Instruction, Multiple Data paradigm, as hundreds of objects can be built simultaneously. The computing and physics performance of the algorithm has been tested on an NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPU, already yielding efficiency and timing measurements that are on par with the latest, multi-CPU versions of existing CMS tracking algorithms. 
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  2. Overwintering monarch (Danaus plexippus) populations have declined since the 1990s. In response, restoration of milkweeds, including Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed), an important host plant in their breeding grounds, has become increasingly common. However, latitudinal variation in milkweed populations suggests the possibility of regional adaptation and the potential for seed provenance to affect restoration success. Using seeds from 20 populations throughout the range of A. syriaca, we tested whether seed mass, germination success, and germination time in the greenhouse demonstrate geographic clines consistent with available evidence for this species from other studies. In addition, we tested for patterns in germination traits consistent with adaptation to spring thermal conditions by planting seeds from 10 populations in growth chambers simulating Minnesota and Kentucky spring temperatures. Even after accounting for seed mass, seeds from higher latitudes germinated faster on average under all conditions. Elevated temperatures accelerated germination time and leaf development time; however, we did not detect geographic patterns in leaf development time, indicating that the processes underlying the latitudinal cline in germination time may be unique to the germination stage. In the thermal adaptation study, high-latitude populations produced larger seeds and seeds that germinated at a higher rate; however, neither latitudinal trend was observed in the geographic clines study, even though individual seed mass predicted germination success. High-latitude populations express more favorable germination traits in every setting measured, perhaps due to reduced dormancy. Consequently, we conclude that latitudinal clines are more consistent with adaptation to growing season length than to spring temperatures. 
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  3. Abstract

    Quartz‐hosted melt inclusions are windows into the assembly and storage of compositionally zoned magmas systems like the giant magma body responsible for the 2,800 km3Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT), Indonesia. Feldspar‐sensitive element concentrations and interelement ratios in YTT quartz‐hosted melt inclusions are found to cluster into three discrete melt inclusion populations. Each population represents a small fraction of the overall range in YTT melt compositions and no more than ∼12% to ∼21% fractional crystallization at mostly eutectoid conditions accounts for the trace elements variations within them. Kinships between host matrix glasses and co‐hosted phases are interpreted as evidence of spatially discrete chemical domains of magma within a more broadly zoned magma system. Quartz growth in the dominant portion of the system apparently occurred after extraction of melt from mush, whereas chemically distinct crystal cores in the more crystal‐rich, low‐silica magmas may have been derived from mush during extraction or remobilized by mush rejuvenation. Collectively, the chemical zoning of the YTT appears to have developed prior to most quartz growth, likely “bottom‐up” due to mush‐derived melt heterogeneity.

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  4. Abstract

    Wildlife must adapt to human presence to survive in the Anthropocene, so it is critical to understand species responses to humans in different contexts. We used camera trapping as a lens to view mammal responses to changes in human activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across 163 species sampled in 102 projects around the world, changes in the amount and timing of animal activity varied widely. Under higher human activity, mammals were less active in undeveloped areas but unexpectedly more active in developed areas while exhibiting greater nocturnality. Carnivores were most sensitive, showing the strongest decreases in activity and greatest increases in nocturnality. Wildlife managers must consider how habituation and uneven sensitivity across species may cause fundamental differences in human–wildlife interactions along gradients of human influence.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2025
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  6. Abstract

    Urbanization is a persistent and widespread driver of global environmental change, potentially shaping evolutionary processes due to genetic drift and reduced gene flow in cities induced by habitat fragmentation and small population sizes. We tested this prediction for the eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), a common and conspicuous forest‐dwelling rodent, by obtaining 44K SNPs using reduced representation sequencing (ddRAD) for 403 individuals sampled across the species' native range in eastern North America. We observed moderate levels of genetic diversity, low levels of inbreeding, and only a modest signal of isolation‐by‐distance. Clustering and migration analyses show that estimated levels of migration and genetic connectivity were higher than expected across cities and forested areas, specifically within the eastern portion of the species' range dominated by urbanization, and genetic connectivity was less than expected within the western range where the landscape is fragmented by agriculture. Landscape genetic methods revealed greater gene flow among individual squirrels in forested regions, which likely provide abundant food and shelter for squirrels. Although gene flow appears to be higher in areas with more tree cover, only slight discontinuities in gene flow suggest eastern grey squirrels have maintained connected populations across urban areas in all but the most heavily fragmented agricultural landscapes. Our results suggest urbanization shapes biological evolution in wildlife species depending strongly on the composition and habitability of the landscape matrix surrounding urban areas.

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