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  1. Strain glass is a new strain state discovered recently in ferroelastic systems that is characterized by nanoscale martensitic domains formed through a freezing transition. These nanodomains typically have mottled or tweed morphology depending on the elastic anisotropy of the system. Strain glass transition is a broadly smeared and high order–like transition, taking place within a wide temperature or stress range. It is accompanied by many unique properties, including linear superelasticity with high strength, low modulus, Invar and Elinvar anomalies, and large magnetostriction. In this review, we first discuss experimental characterization and testing that have led to the discovery of the strain glass transition and its unique properties. We then introduce theoretical models and computer simulations that have shed light on the origin and mechanisms underlying the unique characteristics and properties of strain glass transitions. Unresolved issues and challenges in strain glass study are also addressed. Strain glass transition can offer giant elastic strain and ultralow elastic modulus by well-controlled reversible structural phase transformations through defect engineering.

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  2. Abstract

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by the spontaneous polarization switchable by the applied fields, which can act as a “gate” to control various properties of ferroelectric/insulator interfaces. Here we review the recent studies on the modulation of oxide hetero-/homo-interfaces by ferroelectric polarization. We discuss the potential applications of recently developed four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy and how it can provide insights into the fundamental understanding of ferroelectric polarization-induced phenomena and stimulate future computational studies. Finally, we give the outlook for the potentials, the challenges, and the opportunities for the contribution of materials computation to future progress in the area.

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