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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 13, 2024
  2. Quantum error correction has recently been shown to benefit greatly from specific physical encodings of the code qubits. In particular, several researchers have considered the individual code qubits being encoded with the continuous variable GottesmanKitaev-Preskill (GKP) code, and then imposed an outer discrete-variable code such as the surface code on these GKP qubits. Under such a concatenation scheme, the analog information from the inner GKP error correction improves the noise threshold of the outer code. However, the surface code has vanishing rate and demands a lot of resources with growing distance. In this work, we concatenate the GKP code with generic quantum low-density parity-check (QLDPC) codes and demonstrate a natural way to exploit the GKP analog information in iterative decoding algorithms. We first show the noise thresholds for two lifted product QLDPC code families, and then show the improvements of noise thresholds when the iterative decoder – a hardware-friendly min-sum algorithm (MSA) – utilizes the GKP analog information. We also show that, when the GKP analog information is combined with a sequential update schedule for MSA, the scheme surpasses the well-known CSS Hamming bound for these code families. Furthermore, we observe that the GKP analog information helps the iterative decoder in escaping harmful trapping sets in the Tanner graph of the QLDPC code, thereby eliminating or significantly lowering the error floor of the logical error rate curves. Finally, we discuss new fundamental and practical questions that arise from this work on channel capacity under GKP analog information, and on improving decoder design and analysis. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    In 2018, Renes [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 577-592 (2018)] developed a general theory of channel duality for classical-input quantum-output channels. His result shows that a number of well-known duality results for linear codes on the binary erasure channel can be extended to general classical channels at the expense of using dual problems which are intrinsically quantum mechanical. One special case of this duality is a connection between coding for error correction on the quantum pure-state channel (PSC) and coding for wiretap secrecy on the classical binary symmetric channel (BSC). Similarly, coding for error correction on the BSC is related to wire-tap secrecy on the PSC. While this result has important implications for classical coding, the machinery behind the general duality result is rather challenging for researchers without a strong background in quantum information theory. In this work, we leverage prior results for linear codes on PSCs to give an alternate derivation of the aforementioned special case by computing closed-form expressions for the performance metrics. The noted prior results include the optimality of square-root measurement for linear codes on the PSC and the Fourier duality of linear codes. 
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  4. Abstract

    For space-based laser communications, when the mean photon number per received optical pulse is much smaller than one, there is a large gap between communications capacity achievable with a receiver that performs individual pulse-by-pulse detection, and the quantum-optimal “joint-detection receiver” that acts collectively on long codeword-blocks of modulated pulses; an effect often termed “superadditive capacity”. In this paper, we consider the simplest scenario where a large superadditive capacity is known: a pure-loss channel with a coherent-state binary phase-shift keyed (BPSK) modulation. The two BPSK states can be mapped conceptually to two non-orthogonal states of a qubit, described by an inner product that is a function of the mean photon number per pulse. Using this map, we derive an explicit construction of the quantum circuit of a joint-detection receiver based on a recent idea of “belief-propagation with quantum messages” (BPQM). We quantify its performance improvement over the Dolinar receiver that performs optimal pulse-by-pulse detection, which represents the best “classical” approach. We analyze the scheme rigorously and show that it achieves the quantum limit of minimum average error probability in discriminating 8 (BPSK) codewords of a length-5 binary linear code with a tree factor graph. Our result suggests that a BPQM receiver might attain the Holevo capacity of this BPSK-modulated pure-loss channel. Moreover, our receiver circuit provides an alternative proposal for a quantum supremacy experiment, targeted at a specific application that can potentially be implemented on a small, special-purpose, photonic quantum computer capable of performing cat-basis universal qubit logic.

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  5. null (Ed.)