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  1. The dual threats posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) have emphasized the urgent need for self-disinfecting materials for infection control. Despite their highly potent antimicrobial activity, the adoption of photoactive materials to reduce infection transmission in hospitals and related healthcare facilities has been severely hampered by the lack of scalable and cost-effective manufacturing, in which case high-volume production methods for fabricating aPDI-based materials are needed. To address this issue here, we examined the antimicrobial efficacy of a simple bicomponent spray coating composed of the commercially-available UV-photocrosslinkable polymer N -methyl-4(4'-formyl-styryl)pyridinium methosulfate acetal poly(vinyl alcohol) (SbQ-PVA) and one ofmore »three aPDI photosensitizers (PSs): zinc-tetra(4- N -methylpyridyl)porphine (ZnTMPyP 4+ ), methylene blue (MB), and Rose Bengal (RB). We applied these photodynamic coatings, collectively termed SbQ-PVA/PS, to a variety of commercially available materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the successful application of the coatings, while inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) revealed a photosensitizer loading of 0.09-0.78 nmol PS/mg material. The antimicrobial efficacy of the coated materials was evaluated against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213 and human coronavirus strain HCoV-229E. Upon illumination with visible light (60 min, 400-700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 ), the coated materials inactivated S. aureus by 97-99.999% and HCoV-229E by 92-99.999%, depending on the material and PS employed. Photobleaching studies employing HCoV-229E demonstrated detection limit inactivation (99.999%) even after exposure for 4 weeks to indoor ambient room lighting. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential for photodynamic SbQ-PVA/PS coatings to be universally applied to a wide range of materials for effectively reducing pathogen transmission.« less
  2. The dehaloperoxidase isoenzymes A and B (DHP A and B) are among the most versatile hemoproteins. The DHP A (V59W) mutant demonstrates robust peroxidase activity at pH 5 but complete loss of activity at pH 7, revealing a new inhibition mechanism in the multifunctional catalytic hemoglobins.
  3. High-throughput X-ray crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are critical to pharmaceutical drug development. However, cryocooling of crystals and X-ray radiation damage may distort the observed ligand binding. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can produce radiation-damage-free room-temperature structures. Ligand-binding studies using SFX have received only modest attention, partly owing to limited beamtime availability and the large quantity of sample that is required per structure determination. Here, a high-throughput approach to determine room-temperature damage-free structures with excellent sample and time efficiency is demonstrated, allowing complexes to be characterized rapidly and without prohibitive sample requirements. This yields high-quality differencemore »density maps allowing unambiguous ligand placement. Crucially, it is demonstrated that ligands similar in size or smaller than those used in fragment-based drug design may be clearly identified in data sets obtained from <1000 diffraction images. This efficiency in both sample and XFEL beamtime opens the door to true high-throughput screening of protein–ligand complexes using SFX.« less
  4. Abstract We report the results of the first joint observation of the KAGRA detector with GEO 600. KAGRA is a cryogenic and underground gravitational-wave detector consisting of a laser interferometer with 3 km arms, located in Kamioka, Gifu, Japan. GEO 600 is a British–German laser interferometer with 600 m arms, located near Hannover, Germany. GEO 600 and KAGRA performed a joint observing run from April 7 to 20, 2020. We present the results of the joint analysis of the GEO–KAGRA data for transient gravitational-wave signals, including the coalescence of neutron-star binaries and generic unmodeled transients. We also perform dedicated searches for binary coalescence signals and generic transientsmore »associated with gamma-ray burst events observed during the joint run. No gravitational-wave events were identified. We evaluate the minimum detectable amplitude for various types of transient signals and the spacetime volume for which the network is sensitive to binary neutron-star coalescences. We also place lower limits on the distances to the gamma-ray bursts analyzed based on the non-detection of an associated gravitational-wave signal for several signal models, including binary coalescences. These analyses demonstrate the feasibility and utility of KAGRA as a member of the global gravitational-wave detector network.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023