skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Ricciuto, Daniel M."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity in methane (CH 4 ) flux requires a reliable upscaling approach to reach accurate regional CH 4 budgets in the Arctic tundra. In this study, we combined the CLM-Microbe model with three footprint algorithms to scale up CH 4 flux from a plot level to eddy covariance (EC) tower domains (200 m × 200 m) in the Alaska North Slope, for three sites in Utqiaġvik (US-Beo, US-Bes, and US-Brw), one in Atqasuk (US-Atq) and one in Ivotuk (US-Ivo), for a period of 2013–2015. Three footprint algorithms were the homogenous footprint (HF) that assumes even contribution of all grid cells, the gradient footprint (GF) that assumes gradually declining contribution from center grid cells to edges, and the dynamic footprint (DF) that considers the impacts of wind and heterogeneity of land surface. Simulated annual CH 4 flux was highly consistent with the EC measurements at US-Beo and US-Bes. In contrast, flux was overestimated at US-Brw, US-Atq, and US-Ivo due to the higher simulated CH 4 flux in early growing seasons. The simulated monthly CH 4 flux was consistent with EC measurements but with different accuracies among footprint algorithms. At US-Bes in September 2013, RMSE and NNSE were 0.002 μmol m −2  s −1 andmore »0.782 using the DF algorithm, but 0.007 μmol m −2  s −1 and 0.758 using HF and 0.007 μmol m −2  s −1 and 0.765 using GF, respectively. DF algorithm performed better than the HF and GF algorithms in capturing the temporal variation in daily CH 4 flux each month, while the model accuracy was similar among the three algorithms due to flat landscapes. Temporal variations in CH 4 flux during 2013–2015 were predominately explained by air temperature (67–74%), followed by precipitation (22–36%). Spatial heterogeneities in vegetation fraction and elevation dominated the spatial variations in CH 4 flux for all five tower domains despite relatively weak differences in simulated CH 4 flux among three footprint algorithms. The CLM-Microbe model can simulate CH 4 flux at both plot and landscape scales at a high temporal resolution, which should be applied to other landscapes. Integrating land surface models with an appropriate algorithm provides a powerful tool for upscaling CH 4 flux in terrestrial ecosystems.« less
  2. Urbanization has caused environmental changes, such as urban heat islands (UHIs), that affect terrestrial ecosystems. However, how and to what extent urbanization affects plant phenology remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the changes in the satellite-derived start of season (SOS) and the covariation between SOS and temperature ( R T ) in 85 large cities across the conterminous United States for the period 2001–2014. We found that 1) the SOS came significantly earlier (6.1 ± 6.3 d) in 74 cities and R T was significantly weaker (0.03 ± 0.07) in 43 cities when compared with their surrounding rural areas ( P < 0.05); 2) the decreased magnitude in R T mainly occurred in cities in relatively cold regions with an annual mean temperature <17.3 °C (e.g., Minnesota, Michigan, and Pennsylvania); and 3) the magnitude of urban−rural difference in both SOS and R T was primarily correlated with the intensity of UHI. Simulations of two phenology models further suggested that more and faster heat accumulation contributed to the earlier SOS, while a decrease in required chilling led to a decline in R T magnitude in urban areas. These findings provide observational evidence of a reduced covariation between temperature and SOS inmore »major US cities, implying the response of spring phenology to warming conditions in nonurban environments may decline in the warming future.« less
  3. Abstract

    Simulations of the land surface carbon cycle typically compress functional diversity into a small set of plant functional types (PFT), with parameters defined by the average value of measurements of functional traits. In most earth system models, all wild plant life is represented by between five and 14 PFTs and a typical grid cell (≈100 × 100 km) may contain a single PFT. Model logic applied to this coarse representation of ecological functional diversity provides a reasonable proxy for the carbon cycle, but does not capture the non‐linear influence of functional traits on productivity. Here we show through simulations using the Energy Exascale Land Surface Model in 15 diverse terrestrial landscapes, that better accounting for functional diversity markedly alters predicted total carbon uptake. The shift in carbon uptake is as great as 30% and 10% in boreal and tropical regions, respectively, when compared to a single PFT parameterized with the trait means. The traits that best predict gross primary production vary based on vegetation phenology, which broadly determines where traits fall within the global distribution. Carbon uptake is more closely associated with specific leaf area for evergreen PFTs and the leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio in deciduous PFTs.

  4. Abstract

    Linking biometric measurements of stand‐level biomass growth to tower‐based measurements of carbon uptake—gross primary productivity and net ecosystem productivity—has been the focus of numerous ecosystem‐level studies aimed to better understand the factors regulating carbon allocation to slow‐turnover wood biomass pools. However, few of these studies have investigated the importance of previous year uptake to growth. We tested the relationship between wood biomass increment (WBI) and different temporal periods of carbon uptake from the current and previous years to investigate the potential lagged allocation of fixed carbon to growth among six mature, temperate forests. We found WBI was strongly correlated to carbon uptake across space (i.e., long‐term averages at the different sites) but on annual timescales, WBI was much less related to carbon uptake, suggesting a temporal mismatch between C fixation and allocation to biomass. We detected lags in allocation of the previous year's carbon uptake to WBI at three of the six sites. Sites with higher annual WBI had overall stronger correlations to carbon uptake, with the strongest correlations to carbon uptake from the previous year. Only one site had WBI with strong positive relationships to current year uptake and not the previous year. Forests with low rates ofmore »WBI demonstrated weak correlations to carbon uptake from the previous year and stronger relationships to current year climate conditions. Our work shows an important, but not universal, role of lagged allocation of the previous year's carbon uptake to growth in temperate forests.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    Mechanistic photosynthesis models are at the heart of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) simulating the daily, monthly, annual and decadal rhythms of carbon assimilation (A). These models are founded on robust mathematical hypotheses that describe howAresponds to changes in light and atmospheric CO2concentration. Two predominant photosynthesis models are in common usage: Farquhar (FvCB) and Collatz (CBGB). However, a detailed quantitative comparison of these two models has never been undertaken. In this study, we unify the FvCB and CBGB models to a common parameter set and use novel multi‐hypothesis methods (that account for both hypothesis and parameter variability) for process‐level sensitivity analysis. These models represent three key biological processes: carboxylation, electron transport, triose phosphate use (TPU) and an additional model process: limiting‐rate selection. Each of the four processes comprises 1–3 alternative hypotheses giving 12 possible individual models with a total of 14 parameters. To broaden inference, TBM simulations were run and novel, high‐resolution photosynthesis measurements were made. We show that parameters associated with carboxylation are the most influentialparametersbut also reveal the surprising and marked dominance of the limiting‐rate selectionprocess(accounting for 57% of the variation inAvs. 22% for carboxylation). The limiting‐rate selection assumption proposed by CBGB smooths the transition between limiting ratesmore »and always reducesAbelow the minimum of all potentially limiting rates, by up to 25%, effectively imposing a fourth limitation onA. Evaluation of the CBGB smoothing function in three TBMs demonstrated a reduction in globalAby 4%–10%, equivalent to 50%–160% of current annual fossil fuel emissions. This analysis reveals a surprising and previously unquantified influence of a process that has been integral to many TBMs for decades, highlighting the value of multi‐hypothesis methods.

    « less
  6. Abstract

    Spatial heterogeneities in soil hydrology have been confirmed as a key control on CO2and CH4fluxes in the Arctic tundra ecosystem. In this study, we applied a mechanistic ecosystem model, CLM‐Microbe, to examine the microtopographic impacts on CO2and CH4fluxes across seven landscape types in Utqiaġvik, Alaska: trough, low‐centered polygon (LCP) center, LCP transition, LCP rim, high‐centered polygon (HCP) center, HCP transition, and HCP rim. We first validated the CLM‐Microbe model against static‐chamber measured CO2and CH4fluxes in 2013 for three landscape types: trough, LCP center, and LCP rim. Model application showed that low‐elevation and thus wetter landscape types (i.e., trough, transitions, and LCP center) had larger CH4emissions rates with greater seasonal variations than high‐elevation and drier landscape types (rims and HCP center). Sensitivity analysis indicated that substrate availability for methanogenesis (acetate, CO2 + H2) is the most important factor determining CH4emission, and vegetation physiological properties largely affect the net ecosystem carbon exchange and ecosystem respiration in Arctic tundra ecosystems. Modeled CH4emissions for different microtopographic features were upscaled to the eddy covariance (EC) domain with an area‐weighted approach before validation against EC‐measured CH4fluxes. The model underestimated the EC‐measured CH4flux by 20% and 25% at daily and hourly time steps, suggesting the importance of themore »time step in reporting CH4flux. The strong microtopographic impacts on CO2and CH4fluxes call for a model‐data integration framework for better understanding and predicting carbon flux in the highly heterogeneous Arctic landscape.

    « less
  7. Abstract

    Plant phenology—the timing of cyclic or recurrent biological events in plants—offers insight into the ecology, evolution, and seasonality of plant‐mediated ecosystem processes. Traditionally studied phenologies are readily apparent, such as flowering events, germination timing, and season‐initiating budbreak. However, a broad range of phenologies that are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of plants, and to global biogeochemical cycles and climate change predictions, have been neglected because they are “cryptic”—that is, hidden from view (e.g., root production) or difficult to distinguish and interpret based on common measurements at typical scales of examination (e.g., leaf turnover in evergreen forests). We illustrate how capturing cryptic phenology can advance scientific understanding with two case studies: wood phenology in a deciduous forest of the northeastern USA and leaf phenology in tropical evergreen forests of Amazonia. Drawing on these case studies and other literature, we argue that conceptualizing and characterizing cryptic plant phenology is needed for understanding and accurate prediction at many scales from organisms to ecosystems. We recommend avenues of empirical and modeling research to accelerate discovery of cryptic phenological patterns, to understand their causes and consequences, and to represent these processes in terrestrial biosphere models.