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  1. Energetic properties of bistetrazole derivatives are improved by the step-by-step introduction of functionalities which improve heat of formation, density, and oxygen content. The incorporation of unsaturation between bis(1 H -tetrazol-5-yl) and bis(1 H -tetrazol-1-ol) derivatives leads to planarity which enhances the density of the final product. In this manuscript, we have synthesized compounds 1,2-di(1 H -tetrazol-5-yl)ethane (4), ( E )-1,2-di(1 H -tetrazol-5-yl)ethene (5), and ( E )-5,5′-(ethene-1,2-diyl)bis(1 H -tetrazol-1-ol), (6) using readily available starting materials. Their corresponding dihydroxylammonium salts 7, 8 and 9 are obtained by reacting two equivalents of hydroxylamine (50% in water). New compounds are analyzed using IR,more »EA, DSC and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ( 1 H, 13 C and 15 N). The solid-state structures of compounds 6, 7, 8 and 9 are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The energetic performances are calculated using the EXPLO5 (v6.06.02) code and the sensitivities towards external stimuli such as friction and impact are determined according to BAM standard. Compound 6 {( E )-5,5′-(ethene-1,2-diyl)bis(1 H -tetrazol-1-ol)} exhibits a surprisingly high density of 1.91 g cm −3 at 100 K (1.86 g cm −3 at 298 K). Its detonation velocity (9017 m s −1 ) is considerably superior to those of RDX (8795 m s −1 ), which suggests it is a competitive high-energy-density material.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2023
  2. Abstract The genetic prehistory of human populations in Central America is largely unexplored leaving an important gap in our knowledge of the global expansion of humans. We report genome-wide ancient DNA data for a transect of twenty individuals from two Belize rock-shelters dating between 9,600-3,700 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. BP). The oldest individuals (9,600-7,300 cal. BP) descend from an Early Holocene Native American lineage with only distant relatedness to present-day Mesoamericans, including Mayan-speaking populations. After ~5,600 cal. BP a previously unknown human dispersal from the south made a major demographic impact on the region, contributing more than 50% of themore »ancestry of all later individuals. This new ancestry derived from a source related to present-day Chibchan speakers living from Costa Rica to Colombia. Its arrival corresponds to the first clear evidence for forest clearing and maize horticulture in what later became the Maya region.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Nitrogen-rich heterocycles are essential for designing novel energetic green materials with the combination of high explosive performance and acceptable mechanical sensitivities. In this work, two sets of high nitrogen-azoles, derived from tetrazoles and triazole assemblies with N -trinitromethane, 5,5′-(2-(trinitromethyl)-2 H -1,2,3-triazole-4,5-diyl)bis(1 H -tetrazole) (TBTN) and N -methylene tetrazole, 5,5′-(2-((1 H -tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)-2 H -1,2,3-triazole-4,5-diyl)bis(1 H -tetrazole) (TBTT) are described. Their molecular structures were confirmed using multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N) NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These molecules are attention attracting results emanating from methodologies utilized to access a unique class of tri-ionic salts in reactionmore »with nitrogen-rich bases. The thermostabilities, mechanical sensitivities, and detonation properties of all new compounds were determined. Surprisingly, the nitro-based tri-cationic salts, 5b (Dv = 9376 m s −1 ) and 5c (Dv = 9418 m s −1 ), have excellent detonation velocities relative to HMX (Dv = 9144 m s −1 ), while those of the nitro-free tri-cationic salts, 8b·H2O (Dv = 8998 m s −1 ) and 8c·0.5H2O (Dv = 9058 m s −1 ), are superior to that of RDX (Dv = 8795 m s −1 ) and approach HMX values. Additionally, nearly all new compounds are insensitive to mechanical stimuli because of the high percentage of hydrogen bond interactions (HBs) between the anions and cations, which are evaluated using two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint and Hirshfeld surface analyses. It is believed that the work presented here is the first example of high-performing and insensitive tri-cationic energetic salts, which may establish a discovery platform for the “green” synthesis of future energetic materials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2023
  4. Miller, S. (Ed.)
    Two new complementary Au(I)-catalyzed methods for the preparation of ester-substituted indolizines from easily accessible 2-propargyloxypyridines and either acetoacetates or dimethyl malonate are reported. These reactions tolerate a wide range of functionality, allowing for diversification at three distinct positions of the product (R, R1, R2). For electron-poor substrates, the highest yields are observed upon reaction with acetoacetates, while neutral and electron-rich substrates give higher yields upon treatment with dimethyl malonate.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2023
  5. Self-assembled Fe4 L 6 cage complexes with variable internal functions can be synthesized from a 2,7-dibromocarbazole ligand scaffold, which orients six functional groups to the cage interior. Both ethylthiomethylether and ethyldimethylamino groups can be incorporated. The cages show strong ligand-centered fluorescence emission and a broad range of guest binding properties. Coencapsulation of neutral organic guests is favored in the larger, unfunctionalized cage cavity, whereas the thioether cage has a more sterically hindered cavity that favors 1 : 1 guest binding. Binding affinities up to 10 6 M −1 in CH3 CN are seen. The dimethylamino cage is more complex, as the internalmore »amines display partial protonation and can be deprotonated by amine bases. This amine cage displays affinity for a broad range of neutral organic substrates, with affinities and stoichiometries comparable to that of the similarly sized thioether cage. These species show that simple variations in ligand backbone allow variations in the number and type of functions that can be displayed towards the cavity of self-assembled hosts, which will have applications in biomimetic sensing, catalysis and molecular recognition.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  6. 1-Amino-1-hydrazino-2,2-dinitroethylene (HFOX) is a potential reactive intermediate for a new class of energetic materials. Now we describe its condensation with various carbonyl compounds in the presence of acidic and basic catalysts. Condensation of HFOX with α-diones and β-diones gives products of much interest. α-Diones undergo cyclization in the presence of base to form six-membered ring products, while β-diones cyclize to five-membered ring products in the presence of acid. One of the exciting reactions is the formation of ammonium (5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)dinitromethanide salt, 5c, which was isolated by using aqueous ammonia as a nucleophilic base. All new compounds were fully characterized by advancedmore »spectroscopic techniques. The structures of 5, 5c, 5e, 9, 11, and 12a are supported by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Most of the new six membered ring compounds have good thermostabilities (>200 °C), while the fluorinated five membered ring compound, 12b, has the highest density of 2.04 g cm −3 at 25 °C. Heats of formation and detonation properties were calculated by using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 software programs. Nearly all new compounds have very good detonation properties, especially, triazine salts, 5e ( D v = 7513 m s −1 ; P = 24.45 G P a), and 5f ( D v = 7948 m s −1 ; P = 26.27 G P a) as well as azide derivative 11 ( D v = 8166 m s −1 ; P = 25.48 G P a), which are superior to TNT ( D v = 6824 m s −1 ; P = 19.40 G P a). These findings provide a new perspective for the synthesis of novel high performing energetic materials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 5, 2023
  9. We present spatially-resolved morphological properties of [CII] 158 μm, [OIII] 88 μm, dust, and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission for A1689-zD1, a strongly lensed, sub-L* galaxy at z=7.13, by utilizing deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. While the [OIII] line and UV continuum are compact, the [CII] line is extended up to a radius of r∼12 kpc. Using multi-band rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) continuum data ranging from 52-400 μm, we find an average dust temperature and emissivity index of Tdust=41+17−14 K and β=1.7+1.1−0.7, respectively, across the galaxy. We find slight differences in the dust continuummore »profiles at different wavelengths, which may indicate that the dust temperature decreases with distance. We map the star-formation rate (SFR) via IR and UV luminosities and determine a total SFR of 37±1 M⊙ yr−1 with an obscured fraction of 87%. While the [OIII] line is a good tracer of the SFR, the [CII] line shows deviation from the local L[CII]-SFR relations in the outskirts of the galaxy. Finally, we observe a clear difference in the line profile between [CII] and [OIII], with significant residuals (∼5σ) in the [OIII] line spectrum after subtracting a single Gaussian model. This suggests a possible origin of the extended [CII] structure from the cooling of hot ionized outflows. The extended [CII] and high-velocity [OIII] emission may both contribute in part to the high L[OIII]/L[CII] ratios recently reported in z>6 galaxies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023