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  1. Abstract

    We explore how the presence of detectable molecular gas depends on the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) in eight massive, quiescent galaxies atz∼ 0.7. Half of the sample have clear detections of molecular gas, traced by CO(2–1). We find that the molecular gas content is unrelated to the rate of star formation decline prior to the most recent 1 Gyr, suggesting that the gas reservoirs are not left over from their primary star formation epoch. However, the recent SFHs of CO-detected galaxies demonstrate evidence for secondary bursts of star formation in their last Gyr. The fraction of stellar mass formed in these secondary bursts ranges fromfburst≈ 0.3%–6% and ended betweentend-burst≈ 0–330 Myr ago. The CO-detected galaxies form a higher fraction of mass in the last Gyr (fM1Gyr=2.6%±1.8%) compared to the CO-undetected galaxies (fM1Gyr=0.2%±0.1%). The galaxies with gas reservoirs have enhanced late-time star formation, highlighting this as a contributing factor to the observed heterogeneity in the gas reservoirs in high-redshift quiescent galaxies. We find that the amount of gas and star formation driven by these secondary bursts are inconsistent with that expected from dry minor mergers, and instead are likely driven by recently accreted gas, i.e., gas-rich minor mergers. This conclusion would not have been made based on SFRUV+IRmeasurements alone, highlighting the power of detailed SFH modeling in the interpretation of gas reservoirs. Larger samples are needed to understand the frequency of low-level rejuvenation among quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts, and to what extent this drives the diversity of molecular gas reservoirs.

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  2. Abstract

    We present near-infrared (NIR) ground-basedY,J,H, andKimaging obtained in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field (NEP TDF) using the MMT-Magellan Infrared Imager and Spectrometer on the MMT. These new observations cover a field of approximately 230 arcmin2inY,H, andK,and 313 arcmin2inJ. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate a 1σdepth relative to the background sky of (Y, J, H, K) = (23.80, 23.53, 23.13, 23.28) in AB magnitudes for point sources at a 95% completeness level. These observations are part of the ground-based effort to characterize this region of the sky, supplementing space-based data obtained with Chandra, NuSTAR, XMM, AstroSat, Hubble Space Telescope, and JWST. This paper describes the observations and reduction of the NIR imaging and combines these NIR data with archival imaging in the visible, obtained with the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam, to produce a merged catalog of 57,501 sources. The new observations reported here, plus the corresponding multiwavelength catalog, will provide a baseline for time-domain studies of bright sources in the NEP TDF.

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  3. Abstract

    We present a catalog of 717 candidate galaxies atz> 8 selected from 125 square arcmin of NIRCam imaging as part of the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES). We combine the full JADES imaging data set with data from the JWST Extragalactic Medium Survey and First Reionization Epoch Spectroscopic COmplete Survey (FRESCO) along with extremely deep existing observations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) for a final filter set that includes 15 JWST/NIRCam filters and five HST/ACS filters. The high-redshift galaxy candidates were selected from their estimated photometric redshifts calculated using a template-fitting approach, followed by visual inspection from seven independent reviewers. We explore these candidates in detail, highlighting interesting resolved or extended sources, sources with very red long-wavelength slopes, and our highest-redshift candidates, which extend tozphot∼ 18. Over 93% of the sources are newly identified from our deep JADES imaging, including 31 new galaxy candidates atzphot> 12. We also investigate potential contamination by stellar objects, and do not find strong evidence from spectral energy distribution fitting that these faint high-redshift galaxy candidates are low-mass stars. Using 42 sources in our sample with measured spectroscopic redshifts from NIRSpec and FRESCO, we find excellent agreement to our photometric redshift estimates, with no catastrophic outliers and an average difference of 〈Δz=zphotzspec〉 = 0.26. These sources comprise one of the most robust samples for probing the early buildup of galaxies within the first few hundred million years of the Universe’s history.

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  4. Abstract

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of a sample of 416,288 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) matched to mid-infrared (mid-IR) data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). By using a new spectroscopic fitting package, GELATO (Galaxy/AGN Emission Line Analysis TOol), we are able to retrieve emission line fluxes and uncertainties for SDSS spectra and robustly determine the presence of broad lines and outflowing components, enabling us to investigate WISE color space as a function of optical spectroscopic properties. In addition, we pursue spectral energy distribution template fitting to assess the relative active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution and nuclear obscuration to compare to existing mid-IR selection criteria with WISE. We present a selection criterion in mid-IR color space to select AGNs with an ∼80% accuracy and a completeness of ∼16%. This is the first mid-IR color selection defined by solely using the distribution of Type I and Type II optical spectroscopic AGNs in WISE mid-IR color space. Our selection is an improvement of ∼50% in the completeness of targeting spectroscopic AGNs with WISE down to an SDSSr< 17.77 mag. In addition, our new criterion targets a less-luminous population of AGNs, with on average lower [Oiii] luminosities by ∼30% ( > 0.1 dex) compared to typical WISE color–color selections. With upcoming large photometric surveys without corresponding spectroscopy, our method presents a way to select larger populations of AGNs at lower AGN luminosities and higher nuclear obscuration levels than traditional mid-IR color selections.

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  5. Abstract

    We observed HD 19467 B with JWST’s NIRCam in six filters spanning 2.5–4.6μm with the long-wavelength bar coronagraph. The brown dwarf HD 19467 B was initially identified through a long-period trend in the radial velocity of the G3V star HD 19467. HD 19467 B was subsequently detected via coronagraphic imaging and spectroscopy, and characterized as a late-T type brown dwarf with an approximate temperature ∼1000 K. We observed HD 19467 B as a part of the NIRCam GTO science program, demonstrating the first use of the NIRCam Long Wavelength Bar coronagraphic mask. The object was detected in all six filters (contrast levels of 2 × 10−4to 2 × 10−5) at a separation of 1.″6 using angular differential imaging and synthetic reference differential imaging. Due to a guide star failure during the acquisition of a preselected reference star, no reference star data were available for post-processing. However, reference differential imaging was successfully applied using synthetic point-spread functions developed from contemporaneous maps of the telescope’s optical configuration. Additional radial velocity data (from Keck/HIRES) are used to constrain the orbit of HD 19467 B. Photometric data from TESS are used to constrain the properties of the host star, particularly its age. NIRCam photometry, spectra, and photometry from the literature, and improved stellar parameters are used in conjunction with recent spectral and evolutionary substellar models to derive the physical properties of HD 19467 B. Using an age of 9.4 ± 0.9 Gyr inferred from spectroscopy, Gaia astrometry, and TESS asteroseismology, we obtain a model-derived mass of 62 ± 1MJ, which is consistent within 2σwith the dynamically derived mass of8112+14MJ.

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  6. ABSTRACT Galaxy clustering measurements can be used to constrain many aspects of galaxy evolution, including galaxy host halo masses, satellite quenching efficiencies, and merger rates. We simulate JWST galaxy clustering measurements at z ∼ 4–10 by utilizing mock galaxy samples produced by an empirical model, the universemachine. We also adopt the survey footprints and typical depths of the planned joint NIRCam and NIRSpec Guaranteed Time Observation program planned for Cycle 1 to generate realistic JWST survey realizations and to model high-redshift galaxy selection completeness. We find that galaxy clustering will be measured with ≳5σ significance at z ∼ 4–10. Halo mass precisions resulting from Cycle 1 angular clustering measurements will be ∼0.2 dex for faint (−18 ≳ $\mathit {M}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{ }$ ≳ −19) galaxies at z ∼ 4–10 as well as ∼0.3 dex for bright ($\mathit {M}_{\mathrm{UV}}^{ }$ ∼ −20) galaxies at z ∼ 4–7. Dedicated spectroscopic follow-up over ∼150 arcmin2 would improve these precisions by ∼0.1 dex by removing chance projections and low-redshift contaminants. Future JWST observations will therefore provide the first constraints on the stellar–halo mass relation in the epoch of reionization and substantially clarify how this relation evolves at z > 4. We also find that ∼1000 individual satellites will be identifiable at z ∼ 4–8 with JWST, enabling strong tests of satellite quenching evolution beyond currently available data (z ≲ 2). Finally, we find that JWST observations can measure the evolution of galaxy major merger pair fractions at z ∼ 4–8 with ∼0.1–0.2 dex uncertainties. Such measurements would help determine the relative role of mergers to the build-up of stellar mass into the epoch of reionization. 
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  7. null (Ed.)